Medicinal uses of bay leaf –
- Curry leaf’s natural flavoring agents possess various antioxidant properties and have the ability to control diarrhea, indigestion, and peptic ulcers.
- They are also believed to have cancer-fighting and liver-protecting properties.
- In Ayurvedic medicine, curry leaves are supposed to cure diabetes and help maintain a healthy cholesterol balance.
- Skin Care: Curry leaves extraction or paste may be applied to burns, bruises, and insect bites for quick healing.
- Hair Care: Curry leaves are also helpful in hair care and believed to help in dandruff clearance and strengthening hair roots. Dry curry leaf powder mixed with oil can be applied to your hair on a regular basis to improve hair growth as well.
See the table below for in depth analysis of nutrients: Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii), Nutritional value per 100 g. (Source: McCance and Widdowson’s composition of foods integrated dataset)
|Principle||Nutrient Value||Percent of RDA|
|Total Fat||1.3 g||6.5%|
|Vitamin-A||1130 μg Retinol eq||125%|
|Vitamin C||8 mg||9%|
- 0.1 Which leaf is high in protein?
- 0.2 Which leaf has most protein?
- 1 Does curry leaves contain B12?
- 2 Are leaves a good source of protein?
- 3 Is Moringa leaves are rich in protein?
Does curry leaves contain protein?
Nutritional Value of Curry Leaves – 100 grams of curry leaves provide around 108 calories of energy. They are rich in carbohydrates, proteins, fibre, calcium, phosphorus, iron and other minerals. They also contain vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin E, etc.
What is curry leaves rich in?
Nutritional Value of Curry Leaves –
|Nutritional, Vitamins and Minerals||Per 0.5 g|
|Vitamin A||0.50 %|
|Vitamin C||0.10 %|
|Vitamin B-6||0.10 %|
Which leaf is high in protein?
Leaf vs. Seed Protein – There is a significant difference between seed protein and leaf protein. Seeds (grains and legume pulses) are in the business of plant reproduction and nurturing the developing plant. Leaves, on the other hand, deal mainly with photosynthesis in the mature plant, a process of harnessing visible radiance to produce carbohydrates, and biochemical energy.
Seed protein is a composite of hundreds of different enzymes and structural proteins ( Yang et al., 2013 ), however, its protein complement is dominated by a family of storage proteins: In corn kernels its zein, which comprises up to 60% of the endosperm protein ( Larkins and Holding, 2009 ); in wheat grains its glutenins, which accounts for 40% of the grain protein ( Liu et al., 2012 ); in the rice grain its glutelins, which comprise over 80% of the seed protein ( Shyur et al., 1988 ).
Storage protein imparts individuality to the seed grain: The insolubility of zein in water ( Shukla and Cheryan, 2001 ), the elasticity of glutenin in dough ( Kieffer, 2006 ), the gelling of glutelin in rice ( Agboola et al., 2005 ). However, along with individuality, an imbalance in nutritional composition often crops up. Figure 1. Essential amino acids compositions for some seed and leafy plants a, (A) Essential amino acids b, (B) Methionine vs. lysine content in plant and animal protein c, a Values calculated as percent of total amino acids. Data for dried duckweed were determined by Eurofins USA for a local Israeli isolate of Wolffia sp.
- Data for all other plants were abstracted from http://nutritiondata.self.com and are based on USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference ( http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods ).
- B All values meet WHO/FAO minimal adult indispensable amino acid requirements (WHO technical Report Series 935, 2007), except for values in red.
c The thickness of the FAO standard lines is due to different requirements for “adults” and “children and adolescents” ( WHO Technical Report Series 935, 2007 ). The range varies, respectively, from 1.6 to 1.7 for Methionine and 4.5 to 4.8 for Lysine.
The general difference in amino acid composition among the grains, legumes, and leafy vegetables can readily be visualized by comparing methionine and lysine values (Figure 1B ). The grains and most other monocot food plants are generally poor in lysine (see the boxed positions for wheat, corn, and rice), while the dicot legume pulses are often lacking in methionine (see the boxed positions for soy, chickpea, and lentil).
Leafy vegetables on the other hand (see boxed positions for spinach, broccoli, and duckweed) edge into the FAO standard quadrant along with the animal foods. Leaf protein is likewise composed of hundreds of enzymes and is likewise dominated by a single polypeptide complex: RUBISCO (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), which is a crucial component in the photosynthetic fixation of atmospheric carbon within green plants.
- RUBISCO (previously known as Fraction 1 protein), is located in leaf chloroplasts and can account for 50% of total leaf cell protein ( Kawashima and Wildman, 1970 ).
- In some plants, RUBISCO even crystallizes within the leaf due to its high concentration ( Willison and Davey, 1976 ).
- Many chloroplast proteins, including RUBISCO, are highly conserved at the gene and protein levels ( Sane and Amla, 1991 ).
Thus, RUBISCO is pretty much the same protein in all green leafy plants, with only a few amino acids changes from species to species. Importantly, RUBISCO is rich in the essential amino acids, with usually eight of the designated nine at percentages meeting FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) nutritional criteria ( Kung and Tso, 1978 ).
Which leaf has most protein?
– Spinach is one of the most nutrient-dense leafy green vegetables a person can eat. Spinach has the following protein content :
One cup (25 g) of raw spinach contains 0.7 g of protein.A 100-g serving of spinach contains 2.9 g of protein and 23 calories.Protein accounts for 50% of its calories.
The protein in spinach contains all essential amino acids. One cup of spinach contains 121 mcg of vitamin K, which is just over 100% of a person’s daily needs. Spinach is also a rich source of folate, vitamin A, and vitamin C; a good source of magnesium and potassium; and a decent source of calcium.
Does curry leaves contain B12?
Enriched with the goodness of nature, curry leaves are loaded with Vitamin A, B, C and B12. Apart from that, these leaves are also a great source of iron and calcium. Moreover, adding curry leaves to your daily diet can prevent several deficiencies and strengthen your immunity naturally.
Which plant is full of protein?
– The right plant-based foods can be excellent sources of protein and other nutrients, often with fewer calories than animal products. Some plant products, such as soy beans and quinoa, are complete proteins, which means that they contain all nine essential amino acids that humans need. Share on Pinterest Soy products such as tofu, tempeh, and edamame are among the richest sources of protein in a vegan diet. Soy products are among the richest sources of protein in a plant-based diet. The protein content varies with how the soy is prepared:
firm tofu (soybean curds) contains about 10 g of protein per ½ cup edamame beans (immature soybeans) contain 8.5 g of protein per ½ cuptempeh contains about 15 g of protein per ½ cup
Tofu takes on the flavor of the dish it is prepared in so that it can be a versatile addition to a meal. People can try tofu, as a meat substitute, in a favorite sandwich or soup. Tofu is also a popular meat substitute in some dishes, such as kung pao chicken and sweet and sour chicken.
- These soy products also contain good levels of calcium and iron, which makes them healthful substitutes for dairy products.2.
- Lentils Red or green lentils contain plenty of protein, fiber, and key nutrients, including iron and potassium,
- Cooked lentils contain 8.84 g of protein per ½ cup.
- Lentils are a great source of protein to add to a lunch or dinner routine.
They can be added to stews, curries, salads, or rice to give an extra portion of protein.3. Chickpeas Cooked chickpeas are high in protein, containing around 7.25 g per ½ cup. Chickpeas can be eaten hot or cold, and are highly versatile with plenty of recipes available online.
They can, for example, be added to stews and curries, or spiced with paprika and roasted in the oven. A person can add hummus, which is made from chickpea paste, to a sandwich for a healthful, protein-rich alternative to butter.4. Peanuts Peanuts are protein-rich, full of healthful fats, and may improve heart health.
They contain around 20.5 g of protein per ½ cup. Peanut butter is also rich in protein, with 3.6 g per tablespoon, making peanut butter sandwiches a healthful complete protein snack.5. Almonds Almonds offer 16.5 g of protein per ½ cup. They also provide a good amount of vitamin E, which is great for the skin and eyes.6.
- Spirulina Spirulina is blue or green algae that contain around 8 g of protein per 2 tablespoons.
- It is also rich in nutrients, such as iron, B vitamins — although not vitamin B-12 — and manganese.
- Spirulina is available online, as a powder or a supplement.
- It can be added to water, smoothies, or fruit juice.
A person can also sprinkle it over salad or snacks to increase their protein content.7. Quinoa Quinoa is a grain with a high-protein content, and is a complete protein. Cooked quinoa contains 8 g of protein per cup. This grain is also rich in other nutrients, including magnesium, iron, fiber, and manganese.
It is also highly versatile. Quinoa can fill in for pasta in soups and stews. It can be sprinkled on a salad or eaten as the main course.8. Mycoprotein Mycoprotein is a fungus-based protein. Mycoprotein products contain around 13 g of protein per ½ cup serving. Products with mycoprotein are often advertised as meat substitutes and are available in forms such as “chicken” nuggets or cutlets.
However, many of these products contain egg white, so people must be sure to check the label. A very small number of people are allergic to Fusarium venenatum, the fungus from which the mycoprotein brand known as Quorn is made. People with a history of mushroom allergies or with many food allergies may wish to consider another protein source.9. Share on Pinterest Chia and hemp seeds are complete sources of protein that can be used to make smoothies, yogurts, and puddings. Seeds are low-calorie foods that are rich in fiber and heart-healthy Omega-3 fatty acids. Chia seeds are a complete source of protein that contain 2 g of protein per tablespoon.
- Try adding chia seeds to a smoothie, sprinkling them on top of a plant-based yogurt, or soaking them in water or almond milk to make a pudding.
- Chia seeds are available from some supermarkets, health food stores, or to buy online,10.
- Hemp seeds Similarly to chia seeds, hemp seeds are a complete protein.
Hemp seeds offer 5 g of protein per tablespoon. They can be used in a similar way to chia seeds. Hemp seeds can also be bought online,11. Beans with rice Separately, rice and beans are incomplete protein sources. Eaten together, this classic meal can provide 7 g of protein per cup.
Try rice and beans as a side dish, or mix rice, beans, and hummus together then spread on Ezekiel bread, which is made from sprouted grains, for a savory, protein-packed meal.12. Potatoes A large baked potato offers 8 g of protein per serving. Potatoes are also high in other nutrients, such as potassium and vitamin C.
Add 2 tablespoons of hummus for a flavorful snack that is healthier than butter-covered potatoes and increases the protein content. Two tablespoons of hummus contain about 3 g of protein.13. Protein-rich vegetables Many dark-colored, leafy greens and vegetables contain protein.
a single, medium stalk of broccoli contains about 4 g of protein kale offers 2 g of protein per cup5 medium mushrooms offer 3 g of protein
Try a salad made from baby greens with some quinoa sprinkled on top for a protein-rich meal.14. Seitan Seitan is a complete protein made from mixing wheat gluten with various spices. The high-wheat content means that it should be avoided by people with celiac or non-celiac gluten sensitivity,
- For others, it can be a protein-rich healthful meat substitute.
- When cooked in soy sauce, which is rich in the amino acid lysine, seitan becomes a complete protein source offering 21 g per 1/3 cup.15.
- Ezekiel bread Ezekiel bread is a nutrient-dense alternative to traditional bread.
- It is made from barley, wheat, lentils, millet, and spelt.
Ezekiel bread is an excellent choice for bread lovers who want a more nutritious way to eat toast or sandwiches. Ezekiel bread offers 4 g of protein per slice. Get even more protein by toasting Ezekiel bread and spreading it with peanut or almond butter.
What is high protein per 100g?
High Protein Foods by Nutrient Density (Most Protein per 100 Grams)
|1 Spirulina View (Source)||100 grams||115% DV (57.5g)|
|2 Dry-Roasted Soybeans View (Source)||100 grams||87% DV (43.3g)|
|3 Grated Parmesan Cheese View (Source)||100 grams||83% DV (41.6g)|
|4 Lean Veal Top Round View (Source)||100 grams||73% DV (36.7g)|
Which fruit is highest in protein?
Guava – 2 /12 Guava is one of the most protein-rich fruits around. You’ll get a whopping 4.2 grams of the stuff in every cup. This tropical fruit is also high in vitamin C and fiber. Slice it up or bite right into it like an apple. You can even eat the seeds and skin, so there’s nothing to clean up!
Is plant leaves high in protein?
The leaves of the tree contain balanced levels of essential amino acids as well as high levels of protein, calcium, and vitamin A.
Are leaves a good source of protein?
Nutrient Value of Leaf vs. Seed 1 Department Plant and Environmental Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel 2 Hinoman Ltd., Or Yehuda, Israel Edited by: Bharat B.B. Chattoo, M.S. University of Baroda, India Reviewed by: Giovanna Frugis, National Research Council, Italy; Bhavneet Kaur, Agricultural Research Service – United States Department of Agriculture/Purdue University, USA *Correspondence: Marvin Edelman This article was submitted to Agricultural Biological Chemistry, a section of the journal Frontiers in Chemistry Received 2016 Mar 8; Accepted 2016 Jul 7.
© 2016 Edelman and Colt. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Major differences stand out between edible leaves and seeds in protein quality, vitamin, and mineral concentrations and omega 6/omega 3 fatty acid ratios. Data for seeds (wheat, rice, corn, soy, lentil, chick pea) are compared with corresponding data for edible green leaves (kale, spinach, broccoli, duckweed).
- An x/y representation of data for lysine and methionine content highlights the group differences between grains, pulses, leafy vegetables, and animal foods.
- Leaves come out with flying colors in all these comparisons.
- The perspective ends with a discussion on “So why do we eat mainly seeds?” Keywords: leaf protein, leaf vitamins, leaf minerals, omega 6/3 ratio, duckweed There is a significant difference between seed protein and leaf protein.
Seeds (grains and legume pulses) are in the business of plant reproduction and nurturing the developing plant. Leaves, on the other hand, deal mainly with photosynthesis in the mature plant, a process of harnessing visible radiance to produce carbohydrates, and biochemical energy.
Seed protein is a composite of hundreds of different enzymes and structural proteins (Yang et al., ), however, its protein complement is dominated by a family of storage proteins: In corn kernels its zein, which comprises up to 60% of the endosperm protein (Larkins and Holding, ); in wheat grains its glutenins, which accounts for 40% of the grain protein (Liu et al., ); in the rice grain its glutelins, which comprise over 80% of the seed protein (Shyur et al., ).
Storage protein imparts individuality to the seed grain: The insolubility of zein in water (Shukla and Cheryan, ), the elasticity of glutenin in dough (Kieffer, ), the gelling of glutelin in rice (Agboola et al., ). However, along with individuality, an imbalance in nutritional composition often crops up.
- Many seeds are deficient in one or more of the essential amino acids that our bodies cannot synthesize and which we obtain solely from food intake.
- For example, several cereal grains are deficient in lysine and tryptophan, while legume pulses are often deficient in methionine and/or cysteine (Shewry et al., ; Figure ).
Essential amino acids compositions for some seed and leafy plants a, (A) Essential amino acids b, (B) Methionine vs. lysine content in plant and animal protein c, a Values calculated as percent of total amino acids. Data for dried duckweed were determined by Eurofins USA for a local Israeli isolate of Wolffia sp.
Data for all other plants were abstracted from and are based on USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (). b All values meet WHO/FAO minimal adult indispensable amino acid requirements (WHO technical Report Series 935, 2007), except for values in red. c The thickness of the FAO standard lines is due to different requirements for “adults” and “children and adolescents” (WHO Technical Report Series 935, ).
The range varies, respectively, from 1.6 to 1.7 for Methionine and 4.5 to 4.8 for Lysine. The general difference in amino acid composition among the grains, legumes, and leafy vegetables can readily be visualized by comparing methionine and lysine values (Figure ).
- The grains and most other monocot food plants are generally poor in lysine (see the boxed positions for wheat, corn, and rice), while the dicot legume pulses are often lacking in methionine (see the boxed positions for soy, chickpea, and lentil).
- Leafy vegetables on the other hand (see boxed positions for spinach, broccoli, and duckweed) edge into the FAO standard quadrant along with the animal foods.
Leaf protein is likewise composed of hundreds of enzymes and is likewise dominated by a single polypeptide complex: RUBISCO (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), which is a crucial component in the photosynthetic fixation of atmospheric carbon within green plants.
RUBISCO (previously known as Fraction 1 protein), is located in leaf chloroplasts and can account for 50% of total leaf cell protein (Kawashima and Wildman, ). In some plants, RUBISCO even crystallizes within the leaf due to its high concentration (Willison and Davey, ). Many chloroplast proteins, including RUBISCO, are highly conserved at the gene and protein levels (Sane and Amla, ).
Thus, RUBISCO is pretty much the same protein in all green leafy plants, with only a few amino acids changes from species to species. Importantly, RUBISCO is rich in the essential amino acids, with usually eight of the designated nine at percentages meeting FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) nutritional criteria (Kung and Tso, ).
Leafy plants such as spinach, broccoli, and duckweed (a monocot plant consisting of nothing much more than a single leaf), in fact provide protein containing all the essential amino acids in percentages meeting FAO standards (Figure ). In order to achieve a fully nutritional state, seed protein often needs to be a mix of several sources; for example, the famous combination of sesame seeds (tahini) rich in methionine but poor in lysine, with chickpeas (humus), rich in lysine but poor in methionine (Figure ).
Vitamins are essential nutrients required in small amounts that our bodies are not able to supply in sufficient quantity. Therefore, they must be obtained from the foods we eat. The complement of vitamins in leaves and seeds are very different. Grains are generally low in vitamins, legume pulses are spotty (for example, green pea is rich in vitamin C but not in other vitamins) while leafy vegetables are often rich in several vitamins.
This can be readily seen by comparing vitamin concentrations for green leafy vegetables with comparable data for grains and pulses in USDA’s National Nutrient Database (Nutritiondata Tools, ). Edible green leaves, including duckweed (Landolt and Kandeler, ; Marizvikuru and Gwaze, ), generally have at least an order of magnitude more pro -vitamin A (i.e., beta -carotene), vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (alpha tocopherol), and vitamin K (naphthoquinones) than do grains or pulses (Table ).
Nutritional compositions for some seed and leafy plants a,
|A. VITAMIN CONCENTRATIONS b|
|Vitamin A, IU (beta-carotene)||9||167||114||68||130,000||85,500||77,900|
|Vitamin B1, mg (thiamine)||0.4||0.2||0.2||0.6||0.6||0.9||0.9||1.1|
|Vitamin B2, mg (riboflavin)||0.2||0.1||1.1||1.3||0.9||1.8||2.8|
|Vitamin B5, mg (pantothenate)||1||0.5||1.5||1.5||0.4||0.9||0.9||2.1|
|Vitamin B6, mg (pyridoxal)||0.3||0.3||0.8||0.5||0.5||2.5||1.8||1|
|Vitamin C, mg (ascorbic acid)||2||1014||256||94|
|Vitamin E, mg (tocopherols)||0.8||0.3||0.2||1.8||–||9.3||18.2||45.7|
|Vitamin K1, μg (phylloquinone)||1.9||0.2||67||–||6900||4400||51|
|B. MINERAL CONCENTRATIONS b|
|C. OMEGA-6/OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID RATIO|
Metal ions are crucial for our body. They frequently serve as cofactors in enzymatic reactions and are also important for maintaining protein structure. A third of human proteins bind metal ions, with over 10% of enzymes in our body requiring zinc for activity (Azia et al., ). The comparative metal ion profile for leaves and seeds is reminiscent of that for vitamins. Grains such as wheat, rice, and corn are relatively low in metal ions, legume pulses such as soy have increased amounts of several minerals, while green leafy vegetables such as kale, spinach, and duckweed (Feedipedia, ) are richer in many minerals (Table ). There is a caveat, however, when considering metal ion data. While the amino acid composition (Atanasova, ) and the vitamin profile (Mozafar, ) of edible plants can be somewhat influenced by the fertility of the soil or the water in which they are growing, the metal ion composition is often more responsive (Macnair, ; Chibuike and Obiora, ). Water plants such as duckweed are particularly responsive to metal concentrations in their nutrient medium (Wang, ). The upshot is, metal ion concentrations quoted for leaves and seeds are, to a large extent, specific for the conditions of fertilization. Current research indicates that an excess of omega-6 fatty acids in our diets can promote prothrombotic and proaggregatory activity, while omega-3 fatty acids promote an anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic physiology (Simopoulos,, ). There is, in general (with exceptions, such as chia seeds (Nutritiondata Products, ), a stark difference between seed and leaf fatty acid compositions. While the former are high in omega-6, the latter are high in omega-3 (Table ). In addition, α-linolenic acid, which is abundant in many green leafy vegetables and is a major source of omega-3, can metabolize in our bodies to longer chain fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. These in turn may beneficially affect chronic disease control (Simopoulos, ). The major portion of the calories in Western and many other diets comes from seeds and seed products, particularly from a very narrow field of four sources: wheat, rice, corn, and soy. The recent, huge increase in the use of soy oil, with its biased linoleic acid/α-linolenic acid ratio, has in fact driven a change in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from ~ 1:1 to ~10–30:1 in the American population (Blasbalg et al., ), a change which may impact negatively on several health aspects (Simopoulos,, ). Why if the nutrition value is so clearly on the side of leaves do we feed mainly on potentially problematic seeds and seed products? The answer seems to lie partly with intrinsic biological issues and partly with big business practice. Roughly speaking, wheat and rice grains, corn kernels, and soybeans are harvested at moisture levels between 15 and 25% (see statistics, Nutritiondata Tools, ), while fresh, edible green leaves, such as spinach, broccoli, lettuce, and duckweed each have a moisture level of >90% (see statistics, Landolt and Kandeler, ; Nutritiondata Tools, ). Therefore, to capture equal amounts of solids, one has to consume about four to six times more leaves than seeds, grains, or beans. An additional factor is oxalate, which has anti-nutrient activity and is prevalent in leafy vegetables (Aletor and Adeogun, ). However, in this regard, seeds have their own Achilles heel in the form of anti-nutritional allergens (Taylor et al., ). External factors are also at play: Commercial seed crops are adept at production of carbohydrates, oils, and proteins. Increasingly used as feed, they are efficiently transmuted into animal protein and processed food products. Moreover, with massive silo storage, grains function as international commercial commodities (Pollan, ). In the case of soy beans, an increased demand for soy protein for industrial production of beef and chicken led to an excess of soy oil as a byproduct, which quickly became a food staple for restaurants, and the fast food industry (Blasbalg et al., ). With a growing awareness of health issues generated by seed dominated diets, and the documented abundance of nutrients in leafy vegetables, a move in the West appears to be developing back to leaf-based foods and, importantly, to an increased variety of plant species decorating our meal plate. ME conceived and wrote the article. MC grew and prepared the Wolffia samples for analysis and assisted in the construction of Table, The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. MC is employed by Hinoman Ltd. and ME consults for Hinoman Ltd.
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: Nutrient Value of Leaf vs. Seed
Is Moringa leaves are rich in protein?
Abstract – This study was carried out to evaluate the nutrient composition and functional properties of dried Moringa oleifera leaves collected from two different ecological zones in Bangladesh, Joypurhat and Mymensingh. The proximate analysis revealed that M.
- Oleifera leaves were rich in protein content, ranging from (22.99–29.36%), and low in fat, from (4.03–9.51%), fiber, from (6.00–9.60%), and ash, from (8.05–10.38%).
- The vitamin C content of fresh M.
- Oleifera leaves ranged from (187.96–278.50 mg/100 g), Ca ranged from (1.322–2.645%), P ranged from (0.152–0.304 g/100 g), and K ranged from (1.317–2.025 g/100 g).
The functional properties included WAC (158.00–415.00%), FC (28.30–117.65 mL/l) and FS (333.33–1000 mL/l). Together, these findings indicate that M. oleifera leaves are rich in vital phytonutrients, suggesting a promising balance of food ingredients for human and animal diets.
Are leaves made of protein?
Many edible leaves contain 4-8% protein, which is always balanced in amino acid composition, unlike grains and legumes. Considering that cooked beans contain 7-9% protein, leaf protein can be a highly significant source. Leaf crops can supply more protein per square meter than any other crop.