Organic products Organic Products What Are Curry Stones Class 12?

What Are Curry Stones Class 12?

What Are Curry Stones Class 12
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Paper 4 These Sample papers are part of Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Paper 4. Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here.

  1. Paper 4 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 History is given below with free PDF download solutions.
  2. Time: 3 Hours Maximum Marks: 80 General Instructions (i) Answer all the questions.
  3. Some questions have internal choice.
  4. Marks are indicated against each question.
  5. Ii) Answer to question nos 1 to 3 carrying 2 marks should not exceed 30 words each.

(iii) Answer to question nos.4 to 9 carrying 4 marks should not exceed 100 words. Students, should attempt only 5 questions in this section. (i) Question 10 (for 4 marks) is a value based question and compulsory question. (v) Answer to question nos 11 to 13 carrying 8 marks should not exceed 350 words.

  • PART-A
  • Answer all the Questions Given Below:
  • Question 1: Which war is said to have changed Asoka and why?

Question 2: Name the book written by Bernier. What did he write about Sati system?

  1. Question 3: What do you mean by the sunset law?
  2. PART-B Section-I
  3. Answer any Five of the Following Questions:
  4. Question 4: Mention the features of Harappan writing.
  5. Question 5: The kings of Vijayanagara Empire were in constant competition with their contemporaries?

Question 6: Who were the Shakas? Explain.

  • Question 7: Explain the characteristics of accounts left by travellers.
  • Question 8: Discuss the August Offer of 1940.
  • Question 9: Explain the provincial election of 1937 with special reference to the performance of the Muslim League.
  • Section II
  • Value Based Question
  • Question 10: Read the following passage and answer the question that follow.

“Every one should speak in a language that common people could easily understand. Hindustani a blend of Hindi and Urdu was a popular language of a large section of the people of India, and it was a composite, language enriched by the interaction of diverse culture over the years it had incorporated words and terms from very many different sources and was therefore understood by people from various regions.

  1. PART-C
  2. Answer All the Questions Given Below:
  3. Question 11: Explain the teachings of Jainism and Tirathankars. OR
  4. Describe the teachings of the Buddha.

Question 12: Traditions of the titles, gifts and peskash were the part of Mughal court. Justify the statement with examples. OR What was the religions policy of Akbar? Question 13: ‘The most remarkable features of the Uprising of 1857 was the solidarity among rebels evident during the course of the suppression of the revolt.

  • PART-D
  • Source Based Questions
  • Question 14: Read the following excerpt carefully and answer the questions that follow
  • How artifacts are identified

Processing of food required grinding equipment as well as vessels for mixing, blending and cooking. These were made of stone, metal and terracotta. This is an excerpt from one of the earliest reports on excavations at Mohenjodaro, the best-known Harappan site: Saddle querns are found in considerable numbers and they seem to have been the only means in use for grinding cereals.

As a rule, they were roughly made of hard, gritty, igneous rock or sandstone and mostly show signs of hard usage. As their bases are usually convex, they must have been, set in the earth or in mud to prevent their rocking. Two main types have been found: those on which another smaller stone was pushed or rolled to and fro, and others with which a second stone was used as a pounder, eventually making a large cavity in the nether stone.

Querns of the former type were probably used solely for grain; the second type possibly only for pounding herbs and spices for making curries. In fact, stones of this latter type are dubbed “cuny stones” by our workmen and our cook asked for the loan of one from the museum for use in the kitchen.

  1. What are the two types of querns?
  2. What materials were used in the making of these querns?
  3. Why are they described as ‘curry stones’?

Question 15: Read the following excerpt carefully and answer the questions that follows: Peasants on the move This was a feature of agrarian society which struck a keen observer like Babur, the first Mughal emperor, forcefully enough for him to write about it in the Babur Nama, his memoirs: In Hindustan hamlets and villages, towns indeed, are depopulated and set up in a moment! If the people of a large town, one inhabited for years even, fk e from it, they do it in such a way that not a sign or trace of them remains in a day and a half.

  1. What formed the backbone of Indian agriculture? List some of the frequently cultivated crops as well as commercial crops.
  2. Why could state not indulge in excessive exploitation of the peasants?
  3. What were the different categories of peasant?

Question 16: Read the following excerpt carefully and answer the questions that follow. Escaping to the countryside This is how the famous poet Mirza Ghalib described what the people of Delhi did when the British forces occupied the city in 1857: Smiting the enemy and driving him before them, the victors (i.e., the British) overran the city in all directions.

  • All whom they found in the street they cut down For two to three days every road in the city, from the Kashmiri Gate to Chandni Chowk, was a battlefield.
  • Three gates – the Ajmeri, the Turcoman and the Delhi – were still held by the rebels At the naked spectacle of this vengeful wrath and malevolent hatred the colour fled from men’s faces, and a vast concourse of men and women took to precipitate flight through these three gates.

Seeking the little villages and shrines outside the city, they drew breath to wait until such time as might favour their return.

  1. Mention the names of the gates which formed an integral part of city of Delhi
  2. Separation between towns and country was fluid. Write two reasons.
  3. Explain the features that distinguished the towns from the rural areas in pre British period.

PART-E Map Questions Question 17: 17.1. On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate * symbols. (a) Dacca- city under British control 1857 (b) Jabalpur- A centre of the revolt.17.2. On the same outline map of India three places related to the Territories under Mughals have been marked as A, B and ‘C\ Identify them and write their names correcuy on the lines drawn near them.

  1. Answer 2: (i) Bernier wrote the book ‘Travels in the Mughal Empire’.
  2. (ii) According to him while some womens seemed to accept their fate cheerfully, others were forced to commit Sati, became angered by burning of a 12 year old widow forcefully.
  3. Answer 3: (i) The sunset law was associated with the land revenue.
  4. (ii) If the payment did not come in by sunset of a particular the zamindari was known as jotedars.

Answer 4: (i) The Indus script to date remains undeciphered. It consists of a large number of signs and symbols. According to some historians the script was pictographic. (ii) Other historians believed that its script is phonetic. It is not alphabetical as it has too many signs between 375-400.

  • Iii) There are no positive results to match any two symbols.
  • By the computer analysis the direction of writing has been revealed as going from right to left.
  • Iv) The Indus script has not been related to any other historical context as the case with Sumer and Egyptian script.
  • Answer 5: (i) The kings of Vijayanagara were in constant competition with contemporary rulers.

The conflict arising over the possession of the wealth and resources of the Raichur Doab, a fertile area between the river krishna and its tributary, the Tungabhadra. (ii) The struggle for the capturing of the Krishna Godavari basin which was very fertile and its many parts controlled the foreign trade of the region.

  1. Iii) In the Maratha territory, the main cause was for control of the Konkan and the area which gave access to it.
  2. Onkan was very narrow part of land between Western Ghats and the sea.
  3. Iv) It was extremely fertile, and included within it the port of Goa which was an important outlet for the products of the region as well as for the import of horses from Iran and Iraq.

Good quality horses were not bred in India. The import of horses was thus of great importance to the southern states. Answer 6: (i) The Shakas were the Central Asian people who had migrated and settled in north-western parts of the sub-continent. (ii) They were regarded as ‘Mlechchas’ barbarians or outside by the Brahmanas.

  • Iii) One of the earliest inscriptions, in Sanskrit describes Rudradaman as the best known Shaka ruler (2nd century CE).
  • Iv) He is known to have rebuilt the Sudarshan Lake, described that strong Mlechchas were familiar with Sanskrit traditions.
  • Answer 7: (i) Accounts that survive of travellers are different in terms of their subject matter and strategies.

Many deal with the matters of the court whereas some focused on the religious issues. (ii) Abdul Razzaq Samargandi, a diplomat has left the vivid description of the city of Vijaynagar in 15th century. (iii) Travellers who travelled within the sub continent as administrators have left interesting accounts of popular customers, the folklore and traditions.

  • Iv) Whether some travellers altered to the differences others exceptional note what they find unusual.
  • Their accounts help in reconstruction and enriching our knowledge of the past.
  • Answer 8: (i) Lord Linlithgow made a declaration on 8th august, 1940.
  • It was known as the August Offer.
  • Ii) The declaration stated that after the war, a Constituent Assembly would be convened to frame the Indian constitution.

(iii) It was promised to safeguard the interest of minorities in the new constitution. (iv) During the war, he declared that some Indians to his executive and war council would be nominated. It was as interim measure. Answer 9: (i) In 1937, under the Act of 1935 elections to the provincial legislatures were held first time.

The congress did well winning an absolute majority in five out of 11 provinces. (ii) The Congress formed government in seven out of eleven provinces. The Congress and Muslim League performed badly in constituencies reserved for the Muslims. (iii) In NWFP, Bengal, Punjab, and Sind the Muslim league fared poorly.

Only 4.4% of the total muslim vote cast in this election. Its social support was weak. (iv) The league failed to win a single seat in NWFP. It captured only two out of 84 reserved constituencies in Punjab and three out of thirty three in Sind. Answer 10: Expected values

  1. Unity in Diversity
  2. Mutual cooperation.
  3. To develop the feelings of nationalism,
  4. Fraternity
  5. Communal Harmony (Any four)

Answer 11:

  1. The Tirthankars preached about a new religion which came to be known as Jainism. According to them the last aim of life is the attainment of Nirvana. Pure knowledge, pure character and pure philosophy are three means to attain Nirvana. They are known as Triratna.
  2. The followers of this religion believed in asceticism and penance. They believed that salvation could be achieved by giving more and more pain to the body so they gave lot of pain to their bodies.
  3. Jainism is the great patron of Ahimsa in life. The followers believe that every things of the world are animate. According to them it is a sin to be a reason and injury to human beings, animal, plant or sect.
  4. The followers of this religion accept the existence of God but they do not believe in God. They worship their Tirthankars.
  5. The disciples neither consider the Vedas as having divine knowledge nor the means of salvation mentioned in the Vedas. According to them, soul will be free from the bond of karma. As the cycle of karma ends the individual attains salvation.
  6. They accept the existence of soul. They believe that soul is immortal while it is in the body it is distinct and different from the body.
  7. According to its philosophy, all the people are equal No one to be high or low on the basis of caste. So, they do not believe in casteism. The cycle of birth and re-birth will be shaped by the Karmas. It emphasizes to perform good deeds for next birth.
  8. Tirthankar Mahavir inspired and taught to his followers to lead a high world life. He beawared them from anger, greed, jealously, theft, censure and unethical deeds.

OR

  1. Mahatma Buddha preached very simple teachings and followers adopted them very easily. He streesed on four noble truths (i) The world is full of sorrows (ii) The cause of sorrow is desire (iii) Conquer sorrow by conquering desire (iv) Desire can be conquered by eight fold path.
  2. The eight fold path: (i) Right Belief (ii) Right thought, (iii) Right speech, (iv) Right Action, (v) Right means of livelihood, (vi) Right effort, (vii) Right Recollection, (viii) Right Meditation.
  3. One should not hurt living beings with action, speech or heart. Killing animals and animals sacrifice is a sin. To show love and sympathy with others and follow the non-violence.
  4. It accepts the karma theory, one gets result of his present actions in the next birth. Do good get good results and do bad to get bad results. To have better future one has to do good deeds.
  5. The main aim of an individual is to attain nibbana. He would not want to indugle himself in the quarrel of heaven or hell. One who attains Nibbana gets away from the cycle of birth and death.
  6. He did not believe in worship of God, and Goddess. He remained mum in the regard of authority of God. According to him, an authority exists which runs the universe, it is Dharma instead of God. The sacrifice of animals is a useless rituals and customs. He discarded the theory of Hinduism that Moksha can be attained by it. The chanting of mantras was considered useless.
  7. According to his views about vedas and Sanskrit, were very much different from the Hinduism. True knowledge might be given in any language. He rejected to accept Sanskrit as more sacred than other languages. No more importance was given to vedas.
  8. He did not believe in discrimination on the caste system. All human beings are equal and no one to be considered superior or inferior on caste basis. He did not favour of stricts meditation. Nothing could be attained by not eating or drinking anything. Staying in the family life one could attain nibbana.

Answer 12:

  1. Mughal rulers used to adopt big titles at the time of coronation or after a victory over any enemy. These titles were announced by naqib. An atmosphere of awe was created in the evidence. Such title of the reigning ruler with royal protocol were on the Mughal coins.
  2. The important aspect of Mughal polity was to give the titles to able persons. The promotion of any courtier or others in court hierarchy was known by the titles which he held.
  3. Aurangzeb gave title of Mirza Raja to his top most nobles Jai singh and Jaswant Singh. These titles could either be earned or paid. Mirkhan gave ? one lakh to Aurangeb for the letter Alif means A, to be added to make a change it to Amir Khan.
  4. The robe of honour-khilat was included with rewards, that was a garment once worn by the Emperor. Sarapa was another gift. It had three parts-a tunic, a turban and a sash. Rulers used to gift jewelled ornaments.
  5. In very rare circumstances, emperor used to give the lotus blosom set with jewels.
  6. Courtiers df the Mughal courts never approached the emperor empty handed. They offered either small amount of money as nazr or a large amount as peshkash.
  7. Gifts were considered as the symbols of respect and honour in diplomatic relations. The Diplomats used to do an important work to negotiate treaties between competing political powers.
  8. Thomas Roy was very much disappointed whenever he got back the ring which he gifted to Asaf Khan. Which was not costly.

OR

  1. Akbar’s religious policy was based on the concepts of liberalness and tolerance. His mother Hamidabano Begum was Shia. He was influenced by her liberal and tolerable nature.
  2. Akbar remained under the protection of Bairam Khan. A direct impact of liberal ideas of Bairam khan and his teacher Abdul Latiff was observed. He established marital relations with Rajputs. Hindu Queen played an influencive role in changing his religious ideas.
  3. The liberal religious ideas were propagated by the Sufi saints. It also helped in changing Akbar’s religious ideas.
  4. It was a demand of that time because Akbar was willing to extend the boundary of his, empire and give a strong regime so he wanted to have cooperation of both Hindus and Muslims.
  5. At Fatehpur Sikri he set Ibadatkhana. Various religious leaders used to express their ideas. Akbar used to find the truth from all religions not from a particular religion.
  6. Akbar founded a new religion Din-i-Ilahi in 1582. In this religion, he included all the basic concepts and elements of all the religions and sects.
  7. God, Goddeses, Pir etc had no place in it. It mentioned that God is one and Akbar in his top most devotee. Followers of this religion were not allowed to be non-vegetarian.
  8. Followers of this religions used to greet each other as they used to say Allah-hu-Akbar. they were always ready to sacrifice every thing for the emperor. It could not became a popular religion because Akbar hardly propagated it among the masses.
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Answer 13:

  1. The very first thing was that mutineer reached Delhi and they appealed to Bahadur Shah to lead them and proclaimed him Shah-en-Shah Hindustan. The others were Kanpur, Jhansi etc.
  2. The rebels sought leadership of erst while rulers. It helped to ensure legitimacy and unity among the rebels.
  3. The rebels proclamations of 1857 repeatedly appealed to all sections of Indian population irrespective of their caste and creed.
  4. It was made in Hindi, Urdu and Persian, called upon Hindus and Muslims, to unite and rise.
  5. The proclamations were issued by muslim princes or in their names took care to address the sentiments of Hindus.
  6. The defence of religion and the fight against the British were seen as closely linked to each other in which both Hindus and Muslims had equal stake.
  7. The Ishtahars played important role to hold back to the pre-British Hindu-Muslim past and glorified the co-existance of different communities under the Mughal regime.
  8. The standard of Mohammad and Mahavir were emphasised by the nation of Bahadur Shah.

OR

  1. There was wide spread sense of grief. An observer explained “The life was gone out of the body.” The annexation displaced not only the Nawab but affected all levels-taluqdar, peasant, sepoy created an atmosphere of rebellion in Awadh.
  2. It disengaged the taluqdars of land and power as taluqdars of southern Awadh lost more than 1/2 of the villages which they had previously held. They were disarmed and their forts destroyed.
  3. The ties of loyalty and patronage that bound the taluqdar and peasant were disrupted, leading to breakdown of social order.
  4. Farmers were the subject to greater oppression and exploitation higher land revenue and inflexible methods of collections. That had no guarantee that state would be considerate in times of crop failure or their other social needs.
  5. Grievances of the farmers were carried to the sepoy lines. One-third of the Britsh army consisted of sepoys from Awadh. Common man had to pay higher land revenue an additional taxes on articles as food, houses and justice etc.
  6. Removal of the Nawab adversely affected the livelihood of many musicians, dancers, poets and administrative officials. Nobles, gentlemen and officials together with their retainers were thrown out of employment.
  7. Artisans merchants etc who catered to the needs of the Awadh Court were adversely affected.
  8. People came to recognise British raj with the end of all that they valued, respected and held dear.

Answer 14: (i) (a) The first type of quems were probably used for grain as smaller stone was pushed or rolled to and pro over the base stone which were usually converse. (b) The second type of quern was a pounder lastly making a large cavity in the nether stone.

(c) It was possibly used for providing herbs, and spices for making curries. (ii) The quems were as a rale made of hard; gritty igneous rock or sand stone. (iii) (a) The second type of quems are described as ‘curry stones’ as they were probably used to pound herbs and spices. (b) They were used for making currier.

So they were called as curry stones. Answer 15: (i) (a) The monsoons formed the backbone of Indian agriculture. (ii) Rice, wheat or millets were the crops cultivated frequently. (c) Sugarcane and cotton were the commercial crops. (ii) (a) At that time, the state was aware not to indulge in excessive exploitation of the peasants as in case of excessive stress peasants took recourse to more drastic.

  • (iii) (a) Khud-khasta (b) Pahi-khasta
  • Answer 16: (i) (a) Kashmere Gate, Amjeri Gate
  • (b) Turkman Gate

(ii) (a) People sought shelter in the countryside whenever towns were attacked at the time of the revolt of 1857. (b) Peasants travelled long distances on pilgrimages passing through towns. They flocked to towns during times of famine; seeking alternate mode of employment. We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Paper 4 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Paper 4, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest. : CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Paper 4

What are curry stones?

Read carefully the excerpts given below and answer the questions that follow: How artefacts are identified Processing of food required grinding equipment as well as vessels for mixing, blending and cooking. These were made of stone, metal and terracotta.

This is an excerpt from one of the earliest reports on excavations at Mohenjodaro, the best-known Harappan site: Saddle querns, are found in considerable numbers, and they seem to have been the only means in use for grinding cereals. As a rule, they were roughly made of hard, gritty, igneous rock or sandstone and mostly show signs of hard usage.

As their bases are usually convex, they must have been set in the earth or in mud to prevent their rocking. Two main types have been found: those on which another smaller stone was pushed or rolled to and fro, and other with which a second stone was used as a pounder, eventually making a large cavity in the neither stone.

Querns of the former type possibly only for pounding herbs and spices for making curries. In fact, stones of this latter type are dubbed “curry stones” by our workmen and our cook asked for the loan of one from the museum for use in the kitchen.A. Which type of querns have been found in Mohenjodaro? B.

Write the characteristics of the saddle querns.C. Which two main types of querns have been found in Mohenjodaro? Write their different uses, for which those both types of querns were used. A. Saddle querns are found in Mohenjodaro. Most probably those querns were put in use for grinding cereals.B.

(i) Saddle querns are found in considerable numbers. (ii) They seem to have been the only mean in the use for grinding cereals. (iii) They were roughly made of hard, gritty, igneous rock or sandstone and mostly show signs of hard usage. As their bases were usually convex, they must have been set-up in the earth or in mud to prevent them from rocking.C.

Two main types of querns have been found: those on which another smaller stone was pushed or rolled to and fro and others with which a second stone was used as a pounder, eventually making a large cavity in the neither stone. Querns of the former type were probably used solely for grain, the second type possibly only for pounding herbs and spices for making curries.

What are the two types of querns class 12?

Read carefully the excerpts given below and answer the questions that follow: How artefacts are identified Processing of food required grinding equipment as well as vessels for mixing, blending and cooking. These were made of stone, metal and terracotta.

This is an excerpt from one of the earliest reports on excavations at Mohenjodaro, the best-known Harappan site: Saddle querns, are found in considerable numbers, and they seem to have been the only means in use for grinding cereals. As a rule, they were roughly made of hard, gritty, igneous rock or sandstone and mostly show signs of hard usage.

As their bases are usually convex, they must have been set in the earth or in mud to prevent their rocking. Two main types have been found: those on which another smaller stone was pushed or rolled to and fro, and other with which a second stone was used as a pounder, eventually making a large cavity in the neither stone.

  1. Querns of the former type possibly only for pounding herbs and spices for making curries.
  2. In fact, stones of this latter type are dubbed “curry stones” by our workmen and our cook asked for the loan of one from the museum for use in the kitchen.A.
  3. Which type of querns have been found in Mohenjodaro? B.

Write the characteristics of the saddle querns.C. Which two main types of querns have been found in Mohenjodaro? Write their different uses, for which those both types of querns were used. A. Saddle querns are found in Mohenjodaro. Most probably those querns were put in use for grinding cereals.B.

I) Saddle querns are found in considerable numbers. (ii) They seem to have been the only mean in the use for grinding cereals. (iii) They were roughly made of hard, gritty, igneous rock or sandstone and mostly show signs of hard usage. As their bases were usually convex, they must have been set-up in the earth or in mud to prevent them from rocking.C.

Two main types of querns have been found: those on which another smaller stone was pushed or rolled to and fro and others with which a second stone was used as a pounder, eventually making a large cavity in the neither stone. Querns of the former type were probably used solely for grain, the second type possibly only for pounding herbs and spices for making curries.

What were the two types of querns?

(1) Saddle Querns. (2) Anvils.

What materials were the querns made of?

Quern, ancient device for grinding grain. The saddle quern, consisting simply of a flat stone bed and a rounded stone to be operated manually against it, dates from Neolithic times (before 5600 bc).

Why were some named curry stones?

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Paper 4 These Sample papers are part of Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Paper 4. Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here.

Paper 4 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 History is given below with free PDF download solutions. Time: 3 Hours Maximum Marks: 80 General Instructions (i) Answer all the questions. Some questions have internal choice. Marks are indicated against each question. (ii) Answer to question nos 1 to 3 carrying 2 marks should not exceed 30 words each.

(iii) Answer to question nos.4 to 9 carrying 4 marks should not exceed 100 words. Students, should attempt only 5 questions in this section. (i) Question 10 (for 4 marks) is a value based question and compulsory question. (v) Answer to question nos 11 to 13 carrying 8 marks should not exceed 350 words.

  • PART-A
  • Answer all the Questions Given Below:
  • Question 1: Which war is said to have changed Asoka and why?

Question 2: Name the book written by Bernier. What did he write about Sati system?

  1. Question 3: What do you mean by the sunset law?
  2. PART-B Section-I
  3. Answer any Five of the Following Questions:
  4. Question 4: Mention the features of Harappan writing.
  5. Question 5: The kings of Vijayanagara Empire were in constant competition with their contemporaries?

Question 6: Who were the Shakas? Explain.

  • Question 7: Explain the characteristics of accounts left by travellers.
  • Question 8: Discuss the August Offer of 1940.
  • Question 9: Explain the provincial election of 1937 with special reference to the performance of the Muslim League.
  • Section II
  • Value Based Question
  • Question 10: Read the following passage and answer the question that follow.

“Every one should speak in a language that common people could easily understand. Hindustani a blend of Hindi and Urdu was a popular language of a large section of the people of India, and it was a composite, language enriched by the interaction of diverse culture over the years it had incorporated words and terms from very many different sources and was therefore understood by people from various regions.

  1. PART-C
  2. Answer All the Questions Given Below:
  3. Question 11: Explain the teachings of Jainism and Tirathankars. OR
  4. Describe the teachings of the Buddha.

Question 12: Traditions of the titles, gifts and peskash were the part of Mughal court. Justify the statement with examples. OR What was the religions policy of Akbar? Question 13: ‘The most remarkable features of the Uprising of 1857 was the solidarity among rebels evident during the course of the suppression of the revolt.

  • PART-D
  • Source Based Questions
  • Question 14: Read the following excerpt carefully and answer the questions that follow
  • How artifacts are identified

Processing of food required grinding equipment as well as vessels for mixing, blending and cooking. These were made of stone, metal and terracotta. This is an excerpt from one of the earliest reports on excavations at Mohenjodaro, the best-known Harappan site: Saddle querns are found in considerable numbers and they seem to have been the only means in use for grinding cereals.

As a rule, they were roughly made of hard, gritty, igneous rock or sandstone and mostly show signs of hard usage. As their bases are usually convex, they must have been, set in the earth or in mud to prevent their rocking. Two main types have been found: those on which another smaller stone was pushed or rolled to and fro, and others with which a second stone was used as a pounder, eventually making a large cavity in the nether stone.

Querns of the former type were probably used solely for grain; the second type possibly only for pounding herbs and spices for making curries. In fact, stones of this latter type are dubbed “cuny stones” by our workmen and our cook asked for the loan of one from the museum for use in the kitchen.

  1. What are the two types of querns?
  2. What materials were used in the making of these querns?
  3. Why are they described as ‘curry stones’?

Question 15: Read the following excerpt carefully and answer the questions that follows: Peasants on the move This was a feature of agrarian society which struck a keen observer like Babur, the first Mughal emperor, forcefully enough for him to write about it in the Babur Nama, his memoirs: In Hindustan hamlets and villages, towns indeed, are depopulated and set up in a moment! If the people of a large town, one inhabited for years even, fk e from it, they do it in such a way that not a sign or trace of them remains in a day and a half.

  1. What formed the backbone of Indian agriculture? List some of the frequently cultivated crops as well as commercial crops.
  2. Why could state not indulge in excessive exploitation of the peasants?
  3. What were the different categories of peasant?

Question 16: Read the following excerpt carefully and answer the questions that follow. Escaping to the countryside This is how the famous poet Mirza Ghalib described what the people of Delhi did when the British forces occupied the city in 1857: Smiting the enemy and driving him before them, the victors (i.e., the British) overran the city in all directions.

All whom they found in the street they cut down For two to three days every road in the city, from the Kashmiri Gate to Chandni Chowk, was a battlefield. Three gates – the Ajmeri, the Turcoman and the Delhi – were still held by the rebels At the naked spectacle of this vengeful wrath and malevolent hatred the colour fled from men’s faces, and a vast concourse of men and women took to precipitate flight through these three gates.

Seeking the little villages and shrines outside the city, they drew breath to wait until such time as might favour their return.

  1. Mention the names of the gates which formed an integral part of city of Delhi
  2. Separation between towns and country was fluid. Write two reasons.
  3. Explain the features that distinguished the towns from the rural areas in pre British period.

PART-E Map Questions Question 17: 17.1. On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate * symbols. (a) Dacca- city under British control 1857 (b) Jabalpur- A centre of the revolt.17.2. On the same outline map of India three places related to the Territories under Mughals have been marked as A, B and ‘C\ Identify them and write their names correcuy on the lines drawn near them.

  1. Answer 2: (i) Bernier wrote the book ‘Travels in the Mughal Empire’.
  2. (ii) According to him while some womens seemed to accept their fate cheerfully, others were forced to commit Sati, became angered by burning of a 12 year old widow forcefully.
  3. Answer 3: (i) The sunset law was associated with the land revenue.
  4. (ii) If the payment did not come in by sunset of a particular the zamindari was known as jotedars.
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Answer 4: (i) The Indus script to date remains undeciphered. It consists of a large number of signs and symbols. According to some historians the script was pictographic. (ii) Other historians believed that its script is phonetic. It is not alphabetical as it has too many signs between 375-400.

(iii) There are no positive results to match any two symbols. By the computer analysis the direction of writing has been revealed as going from right to left. (iv) The Indus script has not been related to any other historical context as the case with Sumer and Egyptian script. Answer 5: (i) The kings of Vijayanagara were in constant competition with contemporary rulers.

The conflict arising over the possession of the wealth and resources of the Raichur Doab, a fertile area between the river krishna and its tributary, the Tungabhadra. (ii) The struggle for the capturing of the Krishna Godavari basin which was very fertile and its many parts controlled the foreign trade of the region.

  1. Iii) In the Maratha territory, the main cause was for control of the Konkan and the area which gave access to it.
  2. Onkan was very narrow part of land between Western Ghats and the sea.
  3. Iv) It was extremely fertile, and included within it the port of Goa which was an important outlet for the products of the region as well as for the import of horses from Iran and Iraq.

Good quality horses were not bred in India. The import of horses was thus of great importance to the southern states. Answer 6: (i) The Shakas were the Central Asian people who had migrated and settled in north-western parts of the sub-continent. (ii) They were regarded as ‘Mlechchas’ barbarians or outside by the Brahmanas.

(iii) One of the earliest inscriptions, in Sanskrit describes Rudradaman as the best known Shaka ruler (2nd century CE). (iv) He is known to have rebuilt the Sudarshan Lake, described that strong Mlechchas were familiar with Sanskrit traditions. Answer 7: (i) Accounts that survive of travellers are different in terms of their subject matter and strategies.

Many deal with the matters of the court whereas some focused on the religious issues. (ii) Abdul Razzaq Samargandi, a diplomat has left the vivid description of the city of Vijaynagar in 15th century. (iii) Travellers who travelled within the sub continent as administrators have left interesting accounts of popular customers, the folklore and traditions.

  1. Iv) Whether some travellers altered to the differences others exceptional note what they find unusual.
  2. Their accounts help in reconstruction and enriching our knowledge of the past.
  3. Answer 8: (i) Lord Linlithgow made a declaration on 8th august, 1940.
  4. It was known as the August Offer.
  5. Ii) The declaration stated that after the war, a Constituent Assembly would be convened to frame the Indian constitution.

(iii) It was promised to safeguard the interest of minorities in the new constitution. (iv) During the war, he declared that some Indians to his executive and war council would be nominated. It was as interim measure. Answer 9: (i) In 1937, under the Act of 1935 elections to the provincial legislatures were held first time.

  • The congress did well winning an absolute majority in five out of 11 provinces.
  • Ii) The Congress formed government in seven out of eleven provinces.
  • The Congress and Muslim League performed badly in constituencies reserved for the Muslims.
  • Iii) In NWFP, Bengal, Punjab, and Sind the Muslim league fared poorly.

Only 4.4% of the total muslim vote cast in this election. Its social support was weak. (iv) The league failed to win a single seat in NWFP. It captured only two out of 84 reserved constituencies in Punjab and three out of thirty three in Sind. Answer 10: Expected values

  1. Unity in Diversity
  2. Mutual cooperation.
  3. To develop the feelings of nationalism,
  4. Fraternity
  5. Communal Harmony (Any four)

Answer 11:

  1. The Tirthankars preached about a new religion which came to be known as Jainism. According to them the last aim of life is the attainment of Nirvana. Pure knowledge, pure character and pure philosophy are three means to attain Nirvana. They are known as Triratna.
  2. The followers of this religion believed in asceticism and penance. They believed that salvation could be achieved by giving more and more pain to the body so they gave lot of pain to their bodies.
  3. Jainism is the great patron of Ahimsa in life. The followers believe that every things of the world are animate. According to them it is a sin to be a reason and injury to human beings, animal, plant or sect.
  4. The followers of this religion accept the existence of God but they do not believe in God. They worship their Tirthankars.
  5. The disciples neither consider the Vedas as having divine knowledge nor the means of salvation mentioned in the Vedas. According to them, soul will be free from the bond of karma. As the cycle of karma ends the individual attains salvation.
  6. They accept the existence of soul. They believe that soul is immortal while it is in the body it is distinct and different from the body.
  7. According to its philosophy, all the people are equal No one to be high or low on the basis of caste. So, they do not believe in casteism. The cycle of birth and re-birth will be shaped by the Karmas. It emphasizes to perform good deeds for next birth.
  8. Tirthankar Mahavir inspired and taught to his followers to lead a high world life. He beawared them from anger, greed, jealously, theft, censure and unethical deeds.

OR

  1. Mahatma Buddha preached very simple teachings and followers adopted them very easily. He streesed on four noble truths (i) The world is full of sorrows (ii) The cause of sorrow is desire (iii) Conquer sorrow by conquering desire (iv) Desire can be conquered by eight fold path.
  2. The eight fold path: (i) Right Belief (ii) Right thought, (iii) Right speech, (iv) Right Action, (v) Right means of livelihood, (vi) Right effort, (vii) Right Recollection, (viii) Right Meditation.
  3. One should not hurt living beings with action, speech or heart. Killing animals and animals sacrifice is a sin. To show love and sympathy with others and follow the non-violence.
  4. It accepts the karma theory, one gets result of his present actions in the next birth. Do good get good results and do bad to get bad results. To have better future one has to do good deeds.
  5. The main aim of an individual is to attain nibbana. He would not want to indugle himself in the quarrel of heaven or hell. One who attains Nibbana gets away from the cycle of birth and death.
  6. He did not believe in worship of God, and Goddess. He remained mum in the regard of authority of God. According to him, an authority exists which runs the universe, it is Dharma instead of God. The sacrifice of animals is a useless rituals and customs. He discarded the theory of Hinduism that Moksha can be attained by it. The chanting of mantras was considered useless.
  7. According to his views about vedas and Sanskrit, were very much different from the Hinduism. True knowledge might be given in any language. He rejected to accept Sanskrit as more sacred than other languages. No more importance was given to vedas.
  8. He did not believe in discrimination on the caste system. All human beings are equal and no one to be considered superior or inferior on caste basis. He did not favour of stricts meditation. Nothing could be attained by not eating or drinking anything. Staying in the family life one could attain nibbana.

Answer 12:

  1. Mughal rulers used to adopt big titles at the time of coronation or after a victory over any enemy. These titles were announced by naqib. An atmosphere of awe was created in the evidence. Such title of the reigning ruler with royal protocol were on the Mughal coins.
  2. The important aspect of Mughal polity was to give the titles to able persons. The promotion of any courtier or others in court hierarchy was known by the titles which he held.
  3. Aurangzeb gave title of Mirza Raja to his top most nobles Jai singh and Jaswant Singh. These titles could either be earned or paid. Mirkhan gave ? one lakh to Aurangeb for the letter Alif means A, to be added to make a change it to Amir Khan.
  4. The robe of honour-khilat was included with rewards, that was a garment once worn by the Emperor. Sarapa was another gift. It had three parts-a tunic, a turban and a sash. Rulers used to gift jewelled ornaments.
  5. In very rare circumstances, emperor used to give the lotus blosom set with jewels.
  6. Courtiers df the Mughal courts never approached the emperor empty handed. They offered either small amount of money as nazr or a large amount as peshkash.
  7. Gifts were considered as the symbols of respect and honour in diplomatic relations. The Diplomats used to do an important work to negotiate treaties between competing political powers.
  8. Thomas Roy was very much disappointed whenever he got back the ring which he gifted to Asaf Khan. Which was not costly.

OR

  1. Akbar’s religious policy was based on the concepts of liberalness and tolerance. His mother Hamidabano Begum was Shia. He was influenced by her liberal and tolerable nature.
  2. Akbar remained under the protection of Bairam Khan. A direct impact of liberal ideas of Bairam khan and his teacher Abdul Latiff was observed. He established marital relations with Rajputs. Hindu Queen played an influencive role in changing his religious ideas.
  3. The liberal religious ideas were propagated by the Sufi saints. It also helped in changing Akbar’s religious ideas.
  4. It was a demand of that time because Akbar was willing to extend the boundary of his, empire and give a strong regime so he wanted to have cooperation of both Hindus and Muslims.
  5. At Fatehpur Sikri he set Ibadatkhana. Various religious leaders used to express their ideas. Akbar used to find the truth from all religions not from a particular religion.
  6. Akbar founded a new religion Din-i-Ilahi in 1582. In this religion, he included all the basic concepts and elements of all the religions and sects.
  7. God, Goddeses, Pir etc had no place in it. It mentioned that God is one and Akbar in his top most devotee. Followers of this religion were not allowed to be non-vegetarian.
  8. Followers of this religions used to greet each other as they used to say Allah-hu-Akbar. they were always ready to sacrifice every thing for the emperor. It could not became a popular religion because Akbar hardly propagated it among the masses.

Answer 13:

  1. The very first thing was that mutineer reached Delhi and they appealed to Bahadur Shah to lead them and proclaimed him Shah-en-Shah Hindustan. The others were Kanpur, Jhansi etc.
  2. The rebels sought leadership of erst while rulers. It helped to ensure legitimacy and unity among the rebels.
  3. The rebels proclamations of 1857 repeatedly appealed to all sections of Indian population irrespective of their caste and creed.
  4. It was made in Hindi, Urdu and Persian, called upon Hindus and Muslims, to unite and rise.
  5. The proclamations were issued by muslim princes or in their names took care to address the sentiments of Hindus.
  6. The defence of religion and the fight against the British were seen as closely linked to each other in which both Hindus and Muslims had equal stake.
  7. The Ishtahars played important role to hold back to the pre-British Hindu-Muslim past and glorified the co-existance of different communities under the Mughal regime.
  8. The standard of Mohammad and Mahavir were emphasised by the nation of Bahadur Shah.

OR

  1. There was wide spread sense of grief. An observer explained “The life was gone out of the body.” The annexation displaced not only the Nawab but affected all levels-taluqdar, peasant, sepoy created an atmosphere of rebellion in Awadh.
  2. It disengaged the taluqdars of land and power as taluqdars of southern Awadh lost more than 1/2 of the villages which they had previously held. They were disarmed and their forts destroyed.
  3. The ties of loyalty and patronage that bound the taluqdar and peasant were disrupted, leading to breakdown of social order.
  4. Farmers were the subject to greater oppression and exploitation higher land revenue and inflexible methods of collections. That had no guarantee that state would be considerate in times of crop failure or their other social needs.
  5. Grievances of the farmers were carried to the sepoy lines. One-third of the Britsh army consisted of sepoys from Awadh. Common man had to pay higher land revenue an additional taxes on articles as food, houses and justice etc.
  6. Removal of the Nawab adversely affected the livelihood of many musicians, dancers, poets and administrative officials. Nobles, gentlemen and officials together with their retainers were thrown out of employment.
  7. Artisans merchants etc who catered to the needs of the Awadh Court were adversely affected.
  8. People came to recognise British raj with the end of all that they valued, respected and held dear.

Answer 14: (i) (a) The first type of quems were probably used for grain as smaller stone was pushed or rolled to and pro over the base stone which were usually converse. (b) The second type of quern was a pounder lastly making a large cavity in the nether stone.

C) It was possibly used for providing herbs, and spices for making curries. (ii) The quems were as a rale made of hard; gritty igneous rock or sand stone. (iii) (a) The second type of quems are described as ‘curry stones’ as they were probably used to pound herbs and spices. (b) They were used for making currier.

So they were called as curry stones. Answer 15: (i) (a) The monsoons formed the backbone of Indian agriculture. (ii) Rice, wheat or millets were the crops cultivated frequently. (c) Sugarcane and cotton were the commercial crops. (ii) (a) At that time, the state was aware not to indulge in excessive exploitation of the peasants as in case of excessive stress peasants took recourse to more drastic.

  • (iii) (a) Khud-khasta (b) Pahi-khasta
  • Answer 16: (i) (a) Kashmere Gate, Amjeri Gate
  • (b) Turkman Gate

(ii) (a) People sought shelter in the countryside whenever towns were attacked at the time of the revolt of 1857. (b) Peasants travelled long distances on pilgrimages passing through towns. They flocked to towns during times of famine; seeking alternate mode of employment. We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Paper 4 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Paper 4, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest. : CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Paper 4

Why are stones used in cooking?

Function – Baking stones are usually porous, absorbing any fluid which it comes into contact with. This results in crispy food. Baking stones have good thermal mass and high heat capacity. It is produced of material that is a poor heat conductor. Food is less likely to burn with a baking stone than when using metal or glass bakeware.

What are the two kinds of saddle?

Types – In the Western world there are two basic types of saddles used today for horseback riding, usually called the English saddle and the “stock” saddle. The best known stock saddle is the American western saddle, followed by the Australian stock saddle, In Asia and throughout the world, there are numerous saddles of unique designs used by various nationalities and ethnic groups.

What do you know about the saddle querns Class 12?

Saddle Quern is stone tools used for grinding varieties of material with ones hand. It is produced by rocking or rolling the handstone using parallel motions (i.e., pushing and pulling the handstone), which forms a shape looking like a saddle.

Where were large granaries found Class 12?

Question: The great granary of Indus valley civilization has been discovered by which site? – Answer: Granary is a brick structure with 45 mtr north-south and 45 mtr east-west. It was found at Mohenjodaro at Harappa. It is called the Indus Valley civilisation as it was the earliest site of civilization.

The Great Granary was the largest building discovered at Mohenjodaro. Granary was built on a raised platform to protect it from flooding. It consists of rows of circular brick platforms. It was built from threshing grains because of remains like wheat and barley found in the floor’s crevices. The brick structure has a central passage about seven mtr wide and is partly paved with two rows of six rooms.

The front measures 15.2 X 6.1 Mtrs and has three walls with air space. The structure of granaries was based on comparisons with Roman buildings. Rulers and officials meet in such large buildings. The major sites of the Indus valley civilization were Mohenjodaro and Harappa.

  • They were situated south and north of the Indus river.
  • The sites located in India are Kali bangan, lothal, Ropar, rakhigarhi etc.
  • Indus valley civilization is in grid type pattern where structures of offices, houses and markets were patterned like a grid.
  • Alibangan, a site in Rajasthan, has a bronze figure of a bull.
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During the Indus valley civilization, many beads and ornaments were found like necklaces, anklets, earrings, fillets etc. They were made up of metals and gemstones. Storehouses were developed in Harappa, Mohenjodaro and lothal.

What are querns used for?

Saddle quern and rubber stone; Iron age; Jarlshof | Hist Env Scotland Quern stones were used for grinding grain into flour. This type is called a saddle quern, and consisted of a large flat or dish shaped stone and a smaller hand or rubber stone. Grain was places onto the saddle stone and the rubber stone was moved backwards and forwards over it, grinding the grain down.

What is the meaning of saddle querns?

Saddle querns, which are a slab of stone slightly hollow on the surface in which corn can be ground using a large pebble, have been recovered from Ardnave, Kilellan and Manitoba. She would be set to turn the quern to grind the oatmeal, and then she’d be sent to fetch hay, peat, and water.

Who invented the quern?

Disc quern – A hand quern being operated The adjustable, discoid rotary quern has larger, flatter and more discoid stones than the beehive type. The lower stone was completely perforated. The long handle rotated in a shallow socket in the upper surface of the upper stone. The quern rests on the earasaid of the woman on the right, possibly to catch grain; she feeds the stone with grain from the bowl at her left. Woodcut from Thomas Pennant ‘s 1772 book A Tour in Scotland, Garnett in his 1800 tour of Scotland describes the use of a hand quern as follows: The quern consists of two circular pieces of stone, generally grit or granite, about twenty inches in diameter.

In the lower stone is a wooden peg, rounded at the top; on this the upper stone is nicely balanced, so as just to touch the lower one, by means of a piece of wood fixed in a large hole in this upper piece, but which does not fill the hole, room for feeding the mill being left on each side: it is so nicely balanced, that though there is some friction from the contact of the two stones, yet a very small momentum will make it revolve several times, when it has no corn in it.

The corn being dried, two women sit down on the ground, having the quern between them; the one feeds it, while the other turns it round, relieving each other occasionally, and singing some Celtic songs all the time.

What were mill stones made of?

Medieval Technology and American History – Photos & Videos – Millstones from England Millstones from England The main working component of a gristmill is the millstone. While on one hand they are relatively similar, the variation within each type is immense. Millstones survive long after they are no longer used in milling because they are such massive pieces of stone.

Common uses for them have included paving stones, building materials, and stepping stones or front stoops for the miller’s house. On this page, images of millstones from all over England offer a glimpse of the variety one may encounter. In addition, we offer looks at some alternate forms of millstones used in two related industries: cidering and gunpowder making.

In addition, we also show closeups of some of the mechanisms for mounting millstones. Millstones themselves come in two basic types, a solid stone made typically of sandstone or granites, or a composite stone, the most valuable of which were the French burr stones.

  • Monolithic stones were carved from solid pieces of stone; preparation for use as millstones involved the shaping into smooth round pieces followed by cutting lines of varying patterns into them.
  • The composite stones were made of a number of smaller pieces set into a plaster of paris matrix and stoutly hooped with iron bands.

(Larger photos will appear in a new window)

A French burr stone. You can just see the iron hoops on the edges. Having run its useful life, this burstone was set into the pavement in the mill courtyard. Here on the top face of a stone, you can see the square socket cut into it to take the square drive shaft.
A closeup of the individual stones set in the French burr This piece of French burr was broken off – you can see that it is very porous, but still very hard. Another millstone at Daniel’s Mill that shows how it has been re-rhynded at least twice. Rhynds are the metal arch that you can see in place as it supports the whole millstone. The millstone pivots about the rhynds. These new channels in which the rhynds fit have been cut as the old ones apparently wore out.
Another millstone with two rhynd slots in the garden. Here, affixed to the wall in the town hall of Ludlow is a millstone with an inordinately large central (and square) hole. Another fine stone made of (I believe) Peak District granite. The curved slots for the rhynd are in fact for one that was shaped like a pair of back-to-back parentheses: )(
Millstones abound around mills that have ben operating for many years, as they are the primary item that wears out, but is not of much use otherwise. , unless of course you set it in to the front stoop. ,or perhaps in the floor of the mill itself.

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A number of millstone dressing tools on display at the Ealing tide mill. Peter, the miller at Daniel’s Mill, demonstrates the heft off a millstone pick. A millstone pick on display at the West Blachington windmill, Sussex. Closeup of the mill pick at Ealing. Notice how the iron pick is wedged through the wooden head. The head give more mass to the pointed end to chip the stone grooves. This was an interesting pick in that it had its iron pick put through the handle at an angle. Millstone dressers undoubtedly had their own idiosyncrasies Another view of the same, above. The iron. Peter demonstrates how the “bick” chips out the fine parallel lines in the millstone. One of the few stone levels we saw on display on a French Burr Stone. The level was a piece of cast iron that was used to find the high spots on the stone. The proprietor of Daniel’s Mill near Bridgenorth described how a mill rhynd is set into the stone, and in the case of this one, re-set. and set yet again. The tools of milling and a stone. A cider mill with crushing wheel.

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The Avoncroft cidermill here seen from the edge of the runner stone. Apples would be put in the trough and the runner stone run around in circles, thus pulping them for pressing in the cider press. Here you can see that the cider millstone is made up of a number of carefully joined stones, all made smooth and circular. The guide bar for the runner stone is reinforced by an iron strap. These runner stones could be driven by human or animal power. View #1 of broken cider runner stones at Tintern abbey. View #2 of broken cider runner stones at Tintern abbey. A mechanical system similar to a cider mill was a gunpowder incorporating mill, seen here at the restored Faversham works. This rendering shows the incorporating mills as they would have appeared doing their job. , and how they appeared before the restorations in the 1990s

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Querns: 2 at West Blachington and one at Three Mills in London. These hand-powered querns were the alternative to using a water- or wind-powered mill to grind grain. They can still be purchased for the industrious among you.

Here at Three Mills on the east end of London, you can see a working millstone with its covering case and hopper. The series of millstones that became typical in later industrial-scale milling. A closeup of the rynd slots in a millstone as well as the grinding furrows in the working face.
The third of a series of rhynds in place. You are looking at the bottom of a runner stone (the top one of the pair) and the dimple you can see on the iron rhynd sat on top of an iron pintle which was the rotation point for the stone. A nice view of the bedstone with runner stone removed. You can see the rhynd in place on top of the bearing and a bick and glove on the surface where the miller is resurfacing the bedstone. Another view of a rhynd in place with runner stone removed.
View #1 of the cast iron rhynd support from West Blachington View #2 of the cast iron rhynd support from West Blachington View #3 of the cast iron rhynd support from West Blachington
He’s not unreasonably curious — mice love to scurry down the holes to look for grain when the mills are not running. A final view of what a millstone on your front stoop would look like.

Medieval Technology and American History – Photos & Videos – Millstones from England

What era were querns from?

Saddle Quern What is it? A Saddle Quern from Ballymacfin, near Mosside. Querns were first used during the Neolithic period for grinding grain to make flour. They were also known as ‘corn crushers’, ‘mealing stones’ and ‘grain grinders’ and have been discovered in primitive civilisations all over the world.

How was it used? The saddle quern consists of two parts: the lower stone (bedstone) and the upper stone (rubber). The constant grinding motion of using a quern was very tiring work. In Abu Hureyra, Syria, archaeologists have found abnormalities in the bone structure of ancient skeletons which they believe to have been caused by prolonged use of a saddle quern.

People in Ireland began farming 6,500 years ago during the Neolithic period (New Stone Age). For the first time, communities began to grow their own crops and keep livestock, rather than relying on hunting. By growing cereal crops of wheat, oats, barley and rye, new foods were introduced to the daily diet, including porridge and bread.

Saddle querns were gradually replaced by rotary querns which were easier to use and caused less physical strain. A rotary quern consists of two disc shaped stones with holes through the middle and on the outer edge. A handle was inserted to turn the upper stone. Querns were used in Ireland until the late 19th and early 20th centuries and are still found in some remote communities in Africa.

: Saddle Quern

What was curry originally called?

Etymology – Curry is an anglicised form of the Tamil : கறி kaṟi meaning ‘sauce’ or ‘relish for rice’ that uses the leaves of the curry tree ( Murraya koenigii ). The word kari is also used in other Dravidian languages, namely in Malayalam, Kannada and Kodava with the meaning of “vegetables (or meat) of any kind (raw or boiled), curry”.

  1. Aṟi is described in a mid-17th century Portuguese cookbook by members of the British East India Company, who were trading with Tamil merchants along the Coromandel Coast of southeast India, becoming known as a “spice blend,
  2. Called kari podi or curry powder”.
  3. The first appearance in its anglicised form (spelled currey ) was in Hannah Glasse ‘s 1747 book The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy,

The word cury in the 1390s English cookbook, The Forme of Cury, is unrelated, coming from the Middle French word cuire, meaning ‘to cook’.

What does curry mean as a name?

Popularity : 26115 Origin : Irish Meaning : hill hollow Curry as a boy’s name is of English, Irish, and Gaelic origin meaning “hill hollow”. On This Page

Famous People Named Curry Related Baby Names Lists Popularity Trend Chart Sibling Name Ideas

Who invented curry and why?

Sri Lankan Fish and Tomato Curry Curry is as popular today in the UK as ever. For many, a trip to a local British Indian restaurant is still a regular treat. However, more of us are now cooking curry at home. Not just the old favourites from our local British Indian restaurant.

But something we may have experienced on our travels, perhaps to Southeast Asia or the Caribbean. Curry is an important part of the cuisines of several regions around the world. It links the histories of many countries. It tells the story of early travel around the globe and of the many important trade routes.

But surprisingly curry is a term not generally used in India, despite its common use worldwide. But mainly in parts with past colonial connections. And a few without.

What is curry?

Definition of curry Where does the word curry come from?

A brief history of curry

The British in India Curry travels the world

A brief history of curry in the UK

Curry arrives in Britain The British Indian restaurant is born Curry becomes the UK’s favourite food Curry in the UK today

British Indian restaurant food

How it all started British Indian restaurant menus

Curries around the world

How did curry travel around the world? Where did curry go?

World spice blends Conclusion

What is Curry? Curry may be thought of as any Indian or Indian-style dish, usually with a sauce. But it is not a concept well recognised in India despite many Indian dishes fitting this description. It really began with the British, resident in India during the 18 th and 19 th centuries.

What is a cooking stone called?

Unless you’re lucky enough to have a brick hearth oven in your back yard, a baking stone–also called a pizza stone –is an essential tool for all of us would-be bakers! These stones mimic the conditions in those brick ovens by absorbing heat from your oven and allowing you to bake loaves right on top of the heat source.

How does a cooking stone work?

1. Perfect Crusts – A baking stone is made so that it heats evenly, meaning the entire surface is warmed to cook your foods. Since they are also porous, a baking stone will absorb some of the moisture in your bread or dough meaning you will have a slightly crispier crust.

What do curry blocks taste like?

Golden Curry – Manufacturer: S&B Texture/Color: Light golden color with a texture that’s lumpy and gelatinous. Flavor: Heavy cumin and ginger with a very traditional curry powder flavor. Quite spicy, with a nice dry heat. But the package instructions call for an absurd amount of onion, throwing off the texture and balance. Summary: The easiest curry block to find was, sadly, one of the least compelling. Some tweaking of the package instructions could help it mightily, however. Tried something delicious lately? Reach the reporter at [email protected] or at 602-444-8533. Follow him on Twitter and Instagram @skilletdoux, and on Facebook at facebook.com/darmato, Support local journalism. Subscribe to azcentral.com today,

What are Japanese curry blocks made of?

What is Japanese Curry Roux? – The curry roux in block form was first introduced by S&B Foods in 1956. It refers to a solidified mixture of sauce, made with fat, flour, and curry spices as the base flavor. These days we can even find many varieties of instant Japanese curry roux in the Asian aisle at American supermarkets. The boxed curry roux often comes in a distinctive block that resembles a thick chocolate bar, where you break off individual cubes for the portion you need to make. Some of the common brands include S&B’s Golden Curry, House’s Vermont Curry, Java Curry, and Torokeru Curry.

Is turmeric the same as curry powder?

Traditionally turmeric is used in various cuisines for fla- vor as well as a coloring agent for foods such as rice, yogurt, and chicken. Turmeric may also be used by itself or in combi- nation with other mixed spices. Curry powder is a mixed spice with turmeric as one of the principal ingredients.

What is difference between turmeric and curry?

Turmeric and curry powder are two cooking ingredients that we are often confused with mainly because of their resemblance in appearance. But, they are different from one another, so let us explain everything you should know about turmeric vs curry powder.

  1. Although many curry powder options readily available in the Western market look a lot like powdered turmeric, they are two completely different cooking elements.
  2. In fact, turmeric is simply a single spice derived from the Curcuma longa plant, while curry powder is a blend of several spices,
  3. Accordingly, curry powder has a more pronounced, strong flavor than turmeric.

So, there’s literally a lot more to share with you about these two ingredients. Keep reading!