Description/Taste – Curry leaves are small in size and long, slender, and oval in shape narrowing to a point, averaging 2-4 centimeters in length and 1-2 centimeters in width. The shiny, dark green leaves grow pinnately along a stem, and each branch can hold up to twenty, tightly clustered leaves.
- 1 What is the Colour of the curry leaf?
- 2 What is a leaf margin type?
- 3 What is the texture of a leaf?
- 4 How big is a curry leaf plant?
- 5 Is curry leaf a shrub?
- 6 Do curry leaves have flowers?
- 7 What are the three basic leaf shapes?
- 8 What are the shapes of plants?
- 9 How does margin help the leaf?
What is the leaf margin of curry leaf?
Jitendra Mittal, 2 Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Please type the correct Captcha word to see email ID. Manshu Jain, 1,2 Ritu Gilhotra, 1 Ravindra Pal Singh 1 – 1 School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, India 2 Ayushraj Enterprises Pvt Ltd, India Correspondence: Jitendra Mittal, Ayushraj Enterprises Pvt Ltd, Village Mansinghpura, Dehmi Begus Road, Ajmer Road Jaipur, India Received: October 22, 2017 | Published: November 21, 2017 Citation: Jain M, Gilhotra R, Singh RP, et al.
Curry leaf (Murraya Koenigii): a spice with medicinal property. MOJ Biol Med,2017;2(3):236–256. DOI: 10.15406/mojbm.2017.02.00050 Download PDF The all the traditional system of medicines are included in the account of AYUSH. The AYUSH department included the following system of medicines Ayurvedic, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH).
These systems help us to eradicate or help in to overcome the problems related to the allopathic medicines such as side effect, drug resistance and adverse effect of the drug. Due to all these reasons the plant source for medicinal purpose are highly prefer.
- This review article describes the medicinal importance of the medicinal plant Murraya koenigii,
- The therapeutic value of Murraya koenigii extract for the various diseases with its other pharmacognostic features such as morphology, growth constraints, biochemical composition and biological activities.
This review contains the description of Murraya koenigii with its pharmacological activities of isolated compounds and bioactivity of extract on different animal models in various laboratories. In addition to that, it highlights its potential to have a various type of pharmacological activity.
- Eywords: medicinal plant, plant extract, phytochemistry, biological activity, research work India is frequently known by enormous biodiversity of medicinal plants.
- Among them Murraya koenigii have a lots of bioactive principles due to which plant has been proven as the medicinally important plant but least or no attention received by the scientist.
Murraya koenigii is proven as the natural medicinal plant.1 There are different forms of Murraya koenigii due to which they are found as the useful plant such as extract, essential oil, or directly used due to the presence of following active constituent bismahanine, murrayanine, murrayafoline-A, bi-koeniquinone-A, bismurrayaquinone, mukoenine-A, mukoenine-B, mukoenine-C, murrastifoline, Murrayazolinol, murrayacine, murrayazolidine, murrayazoline, mahanimbine, girinimbine, koenioline, xynthyletin, koenigine-Quinone A and koenigine-Quinone B for therapeutic purpose by folk people.2 –5 Many medicines such as digitalis, vinblastine, aspirin and quinine has plant as a source of origin for example foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea ), willow bark (Salix spp.), quinine bark ( Cinchona officinalis ).
- For therapeutic or prophylactic purposes medicinal plant are used.
- For the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants presence of secondary metabolites plays a very important role such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpinoids, vitamins, tannins etc., these all are the secondary metabolites of the plant as active constituent.6 These all secondary metabolites of plant physiologically affect the body at different stages of body development and make the body disease free.
The plant Murraya koenigii belonging to the family Rutaceae is largely growing plant throughout the spring, summer and in rain fall season in every part of the tropical region up to the height of 1500 to 1655m from sea level.6, 7 It is also known as Curry Leaf English, Mitha Neem in Hindi, and Karuveppilei in Tamilnadu and Surabhinimba in Sanskrit.8 Synonym in Indian Language Curry Leaf (English), Karepaku (Andhra Pradesh), Narasingha (Assam); Barsanga, Kartaphulli (Bengal); Gorenimb (Gujrat); Mitha Neem (Himachal Pradesh); Kathnim, Mitha Neem, Kurry Patta (Hindi); Karibeva (Karnataka); Kariveppilei (Kerala); Gandhela, Gandla, Gani (Kumaon); Bhursanga (Orissa); Mahanimb (Sanskrit); Karivempu (Tamilnadu).
Synonym in other language Burmese: Pindosine; Danish: Karrry bald; Dutch: Kerriebladeren; English: Curry leaves; French: Feuilles de cury; German: Curryblatter; Indonesian: Daun kari; Italian: Fogli de Cari; Spanish: Hoja. Biological source The species name commemorates the botanist Johann König. The genus Murray commemorates Swedish physician and botanist Johann Andreas Murray who died in 1791.
Hence the botanical name of the curry leaves is Murraya koenigii.9 Taxonomic status
Kingdom – Plantae Sub-kingdom – Tracheobionta Superdivision – Spermatophyta Division – Magnoliophyta Class – Magnoliospida Subclass – Rosidae Order – Sapindales Family – Rutaceae Genus – Murraya J. Koenig ex L Species – Murraya koenigii Spreng.
History The history of curry leaves are seen in early 1 st to 4 th century AD. In Tamil and Kannada literature it was updated as word ‘kari’ with its uses. The word now popularly used for the Murraya koenigii is curry leaf which is originated from Tamil word Kari which means as ‘spiced sauce’.10 In the early literatures of Tamil and Kannada the use of Murraya koenigii is described as the flavouring agent for the vegetables.11 Today Murraya koenigii are grown as the cultivated crop in India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, Australia, Pacific Islands and Africa as flavouring agent for the food.12 Distribution Murraya koenigii originates from east and south part of India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, China and Hainan but widely cultivated in South-East Asia and some parts of the United States and Australia.13 It grows throughout India up to the height of 1500 to 1655m from sea level and in the Andaman Islands.14 It is also available in other part of Asian region like in moist forests of 500-1600m 15 height in Guangdong, Shainan, S Yunnan (Xishuangbanna), Bhutan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.
Together with South Indian immigrants, curry leaves reached Malaysia, 16, 17 South Africa and Reunion Island.3,4 Out of the 14 global species that belong to the genus Murraya, only two are known to be found in India, which is Murraya koenigii (Spreng) and Murraya paniculata (Jack).18, 19 Can grow in full sun or light shade.
Murraya koenigii is distributed from south and East Asia to Australia.20 –22 Curry Leaf plant to have flowers and vibrant green leaves throughout the spring, summer and in rain fall. The leaves drop off during its’ resting period in the winter months.
They like full sun, well-drained soil, which should be the dry side and they need fertilizer in the month of summer.23, 24 The fruiting season was observed to continue from the end of June to the end of August, and the July is considered as the peak fruiting season. In India, harvesting of leaves started from 15 months after planting out and collection of leaves repeated in every 2 to 3 months.25 In cold countries such as in Southern California, South Texas and South Florida, outdoors growth needs protection from freezing.
Seeds are fragile so handle with care.26 Tree Murraya koenigii is semi deciduous, unarmed aromatic small spreading shrub or tree with strong woody stem but slender with the stem which is dark green to brownish in colour the tree is 4–8.7m (13–31 feet) tall, with a trunk up to 81cm 27 diameter.28 The diameter of main stem is about 16cm.28, 29 Flower The flowers of curry leaves is small, white fragrant and funnel- shaped, regular, pentamerous, stalked, complete, ebracteate, hypogynous, persistent, inferior, green, corolla, polypetalous, androecium, polyandrous, lanceolate, stigma, bright, sticky, style, short, ovary, inflorescence, a terminal cyme, the diameter of a flower is 1.12cm in the fully opened form, each cluster bear approximately 60 to 90 flowers at a time after flowering at once, 5-lobed calyx, with petals in having length 5 mm and the petals are 5 in number, with stamen in number 10 and in small in size approximate number 4 mm, dorsifixed, arranged into circles, with long superior gynoecium with size 5 to 6mm.20 Curry tree flowers have a sweet fragrance, bisexual with self-pollinated for produce black berries in small size with shiny appearance containing a large visible seed with the number 1.21 Leaf Curry leaves are aromatic in nature having characteristic aroma, leaves of curry leaves are shiny and smooth with paler undersides.30 Leaves are pinnate, exstipulate, having reticulate venation and having ovate lanceolate with an oblique base, 30 with 11-21 leaflets whose size description is each leaflet is 0.79–1.57inch long and 0.39–0.79 inch broad.
Leaflets are short stalked, alternate, gland dotted and having 0.5-cm-long petiole The leaf margins are irregularly serrate.20, 31 The yield of a bush in approximately found about 480 g in three to four pickings.32 The stem of Murraya koenigii is brown to dark green in colour, with dots on the bark like small node on it, when the bark was peeled off longitudinally under the exposing the white wood underneath; the girth of the main stem is 16cm up to 6 meters in height and 15 to 40cm in diameter.33 Fruit Fruits of the Murraya koenigii occur in cluster form varies in 32 to 80 in number.34 The fruits are in the ovoid or subglobose and small in size in the spinach green colour seed in one or two number which are enclosing each other in thin pericarp.6 The fruits are 1 to 1.2cm in the diameter with length 1.4 to 1.6cm, purple black after ripening and they are edible and yields 0.76% of a yellow volatile oil.35 Curry leaf fruit is 11mm long and weigh about 445mg Fruits.
The plant produces small white flowers which can self-pollinate. The weight of pulp is 880mg and the volume is 895 microliters.14, 10 The seeds of the Murraya koenigii are poisonous in nature and should not be consumed for any purpose.6 Microscopy The microscopically view of Murraya koenigii is as follow: Leaves: The leaves have the obliquely ovate or fairly rhomboid with acuminate obtuse or acute apex.
The petiole is about 20 to 30cm in length and the leaves have reticulate venation and dentate margin with an asymmetrical base.36 In the microscopic studies, it was elucidate that the stomata were distributed on adaxial surface and the adaxial surface does not have stomata and the type of stomata that was found is anomocytic.
The transverse section of the leaves has a layer of epidermis which is composed of rectangular cell. The upper epidermis was covered with cuticle and in the midrib the epidermis has 1 to 4 layers of collenchymatous hypodermis with 2-5 layers of chlorenchyma cells.37 The ground tissue is oval to polygonal parenchyma cell with vascular bundle.
- Calcium oxalate found in sandy and prismatic crystals.38 The curry leaf shows the presence of unicellular trichomes with obliterated lumen, parenchymatous pith in petiole, long pericyclic fibre in the midrib, large cruciferous stomata and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals.
- Fresh leaves on steam distillation under pressure yield 20.6% of volatile oil and without pressure less than 2%.39, 40 The fibres measure 2000μ in length.
Root: The root shows tetrarch to pentarchstele, phelloderm fibres are absent and concentric grains of parenchyma are present.41 Powder: Green in colour with no distinct odour or taste, unicellular, bent or curved trichomes, two layered palisade, portion of secretory canals, well developed pericyclic fibres and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are the important identifying characters.41 Murraya koenigii is very rich source of organic compounds with different chemical composition such as alkaloids, flavonoids carbohydrates, and sterol is present in the plant extract prepared in solvents such as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water.42, 43, 34, 44, 45 The major chemical constituents are explained For the confirmation of the phyto-constituents in the plant extract, various numbers of tests were performed:
The presence of alkaloids was confirmed by using Mayer’s reagent, which shows formation of white or cream colored precipitates in the extract of Murraya koenigii. Phenolic compounds were confirmed by formation of white precipitate by the addition of few drops of 5% lead acetate solution to alcoholic extracts of Murraya koenigii. The presence of flavonoids is detected by Yellow coloration of filter paper by dipping in ammoniated alcoholic upon the extract. Presence of Saponins is considered when the extract showed honey comb like frothing formation after giving a shake with sodium bicarbonate. The presence of proteins and free amino acids is indicated by the conducting the following tests i.e., Millons, Biurets and Ninhydrins test. Presence of sterol and triterpenes are indicated by alcoholic extract which was shaken with chloroform and few drops of acetic anhydride along with few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid from the side of the tube form the blue to brick red coloration.46
The essential oil composition of Murraya koenigii was studied and then presence of D-Sabinene, D-α-Terpinol, di-α-phellendrene, D-α-pinene, caryophyllene and dipentene 47 and the property of Murraya koenigii oil is explained ( Table 1 ).
|1||Specific Gravity (25°C)||0.9748|
|2||Refractive Index (25°C)||1.5021|
|3||Optical Rotation (25°C)||+ 4.8|
|5||Saponification Value after Acetylation||54.6|
|8||Fat (Ether Extract)||1.0%|
|12||Calcium||810 Mg/100 G|
|13||Phosphorus||600 Mg/100 G|
|14||Iron Of Edible Portion||3.1 Mg/100 G|
|15||Carotene (As Vitamin A)||12 600 Iµ/100 G|
|16||Nicotinic Acid||2.3 Mg/100 G|
|17||Vitamin C||4 Mg/100 G|
|18||Thiamine And Riboflavin||Absent|
Table 1 The Essential Oil Property of Murraya koenigii. Leaves The fresh leaves of Murraya koenigii contain 61.77- 66.2% of moisture, 2.1-12.5%of protein, 14.6-18.97% of total sugar, 9.7-13.06% of total ash, 1.35-1.82% of acid insoluble ash, 1.35-1.82% of alcohol soluble extractive and water extractive value ranges between 27.33-33.45%.48 The nutritional value is explained.
|S.No.||Nutrients Value as Per 100 Gram||Fresh Curry Leaf||Dry Curry Leaf|
Table 2 Nutrients Value of Murraya koenigii. Seed of Murraya koenigii consist of furocoumarin lactone, carbazole alkaloids, glycolipids, Phospholipids and terpinene. It also contains 4.4% of total lipids in which 85.4 % are neutral lipids, 5.1 % are glycolipids and 9.5 % are phospho-lipids.73.9% triacylglycerol, 10.2% free fatty acids and small amounts of diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols and sterols which are present in neutral lipids.
The seeds of Murraya koenigii contain terpinene these are as follow terpinene, terpinen-4-ol, linolol, 50 ocimene, limblee, limbolee and simbolee.51 -53 The fruit contain pulp which is having 64.9% of moisture, 16.8% of total soluble solids, 48 9.76% of total sugar, 54 9.58% of reducing sugar, 55 0.17% of non-reducing sugar, 13.35% of vitamin C, 56 2.162% of total ash, 1.97% of protein, 57 0.082% of phosphorus, 0.811% of potassium (32,2), 0.166% of calcium, 0.216% of magnesium, 58 0.007% of iron and 0.00057% of tannin.
Stem and bark The chemical constituent of matured stem and bark of Murraya koenigii are carbazole alkaloids, coumarin galactoside, Carbazole carboxylic acid, glycolipids, Phospholipids etc. Roots The roots of Murraya koenigii include many types of bioactive compounds.
|Chemical Composition||Structure||Nature||Extracted From||Percentage||Reference|
|β- Elemene||Sesquiterpene||Leaves. Stem||0.35-7.09||21|
|Bismurrayafoline E||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||0.76-1.23||40|
|Bispyrafoline||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||0.34-0.98||26|
|β-Myrcene||Olefinic Natural Organic Hydrocarbon||Leaves, Stems||1.103||38|
|Bornyl Acetate||Terpene||Leaves, Stems, Roots||1.165-1.68||12|
|Bicyclomahanimbicine||Terpenoid Alkaloids||Leaves, Stems,||1.43||23|
|Bicyclomahanimbine||Alkaloids||Leaves, Stems, Roots||0.324||19|
|Butanedioic Acid||Dicarboxylic Acid||Leaves, Stems||2.18||19|
|Butyl Myristate||Esters||Leaves, Stems||0.66||51|
|Bismahanine||Indole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||0.0208||37|
|Bis-3-Hydroxy-3- Methyl Carbazole||Indole Alkaloid||Roots||0.00136||44|
|Cis -2-Cyclohexen-1-Ol||Monoterpenoid Alcohol||Leaves||0.54||46|
|Chrysanthenyl Acetate||Monoterpene||Leaves, Stem||0.39||25|
|Citral||Monoterpenoidal Aldehyde||Leaves, Stems||0.76||13|
|3-Carene||Bicyclic Monoterpene||Leaves, Stems||0.543||24|
|6,7-Dimethoxy 1-Hydroxy Carbazole||Carbazole Alkaloids||Leaves, Stems, Roots||0.0004||76|
|Dehydro Aromadendrene||Sesquiterpense||Leaves, Stems, Roots||2.75||51|
|Girinimbine||Indole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems, Roots, Fruits, Seeds||0.015-0.1622||51|
|Girinimbilol||Indole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems, Roots||0.15||48|
|1-Hydroxy-3-Methyl Carbazole||Indole Alkaloid||Stems||0.0022||76|
|Isomurrayazoline||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||2.34||39|
|Isomurrayazolinine||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||3.22||40|
|Iso Caryophyllene||Sesquiterpense||Leaves, Stems||6.72||16|
|Isogirinimbine||Carbazole Alkaloids||Leaves, Stems||2.004||32|
|Iso Menthone||Ketone||Leaves, Stems, Roots||0.6||54|
|Isomahanimbine (+)||Indole Alkaloid||Leaves, Fruit||1.9903||46|
|Koenimbine||Indole Alkaloid||Leaves, Fruits||02.33||17|
|Koenoline||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Seeds||20.34||78|
|Koenimbidine||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||13.5||22|
|Koenigicine||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||3.89||19|
|Linalool||Terpene Alcohol||Leaves, Stems, Roots||0.56||27|
|Linalyl Acetate||Acetate Ester||Leaves, Stems||0.93||13|
|Limonene||Cyclic Terpene||Leaves, Stems||5.374||19|
|Lavandulyl Acetate||Acetate Ester||Leaves, Stems||1.67||37|
|Mahanimbinine||Terpenoid Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||5.5464||73|
|Murrayamine-J||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||2.45-2.90||46|
|Marmesin-1′-O-Beta-D Galactopyranoside||Coumarin Galactoside||Stems||1.114||50|
|Murrayamine-M||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||1.34-1.99||46|
|Murrayamine-G||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||1.32-2.09||38|
|Murrayazolidine||Pentacyclic Carbazole Alkaloid.||Leaves, Stems||0.43-1.89||40|
|Murrayacine||Pyrano-Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||1.00-1.90||3|
|Murrayacinine||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||1.32-2.43||79|
|Mahanimboline||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||1.32-2.98||43|
|Mukoeic Acid||Carbazole Carboxylic Acid||Leaves, Stems||1.02-1.98||80|
|Mukonine||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems, Roots||1.23-2.78||81|
|3-Methyl Carbazole||Carbazole Alkaloids||Leaves, Stems, Roots||0.23-2.34||76|
|Mukonidine||Carbazole Alkaloids||Leaves, Stems||0.29-2.89||40|
|Mahanimbine||Indole Alkaloid||Roots, Leaves||0.0113||22|
|Murrayanol||Alkaloids||Roots, Leaves, Stems||0.23-2.87||46|
|Murrayazolinine||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Seeds||0.89-1.29||62|
|Murrafoline-I||Biscarbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems, Seeds||0.34-2.43||65|
|Mukonicine||Carbazole Alkaloid||Fruits, Seeds, Leaves||2.98-3.09||23|
|Murrayacinine||Carbazole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||1.32-2.43||79|
|Mukoenine A||Indole Alkaloid||Leaves, Roots||0.0015||74|
|2-Methoxy-3-Methyl||Indole Alkaloid||Leaves, Stems||0.0022||3|
|O-Methyl Murrayanine||Carbazole Alkaloids||Roots, Leaves, Stems||2.45-2.99||37|
|Mahanimbinol||Indole Alkaloid||Stems, Leaves, Roots||0.29-2.86||39|
|Mahanine||Indole Alkaloid||Stems, Leaves, Roots||0.00116||21|
|Murrayanine||Carbazole Alkaloid||Stems, Leaves||0.05-1.78||72|
|Nicotinic Acid||Carboxylic Acid||Stems, Leaves, Roots||2.3||46|
|Steary Alcohol||Alcohols||Stems, Leaves, Roots||1.01||39|
Table 3 Chemical Constituent of Murraya koenigii, Many methods are available for the preparation of the extract in which some methods are as follow: 59, 60
Murraya koenigii powder was extracted with 100ml of Ethanol and kept on rotary shaker at 190-220 rpm for 24 hours. The extract was collected and solvent was evaporated to make the final volume and stored at 40 0 C in air tight bottles.61 The essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation method using Clevenger apparatus. The distilled oil was separated from water by a separating funnel and stored in refrigerator.62 Extractions and separations on the isolates of hexane, chloroform and methanol of the plant samples (stem bark and roots) have led to the isolation and characterizations of carbazole alkaloids. Stem barks and roots of Murraya koenigii extracts was concentrated to yield a brown yellowish viscous syrup for crude hexane extract (22.5g and 33.0g) and dark brown viscous syrup for crude chloroform extract (14.0g and 24.0g). Each crude extracts was subjected to column vacuum chromatography over silica gel and eluted with mixture of hexane, hexane/ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate/ methanol and methanol to give a total about 75 fractions each.63 The crude powder of Murraya koenigii leaves was defatted with petroleum ether for about 24h. After defattation, the extraction was carried out using a Soxhlet apparatus in hydro-methanolic solution in the ratio 30:70.64
Uses Biological activity of Murraya koenigii are reported which included the following these activities are studied on the following the crude extracts which are as follow in the Murraya koenigii has been mentioned in the traditional medicinal system in Ayurveda different studies were performed on the Bark, root, leaves, fruit and fruit pulp of Murraya koenigii 65 ( Table 4 ).
|S.No||Uses||Chemical Constituent Used||Pharmacological Action On||Animal Used||Dose||Reference|
|1||Anti-Diabetic||Koenimbidine, Murrayacine, Murrayazolinine.||Decreases Oxidative Stress By Acting On Paraoxonase 1 Activity||Rats Rabbits||75 Mg/Kg||34|
|2||Anti-Trichomonal||Girinimbine, Mahanimbilol Girinimbiol||Act Against Trichomonas Gallinae||Rats||1.08 To 1.20 Mg/ml||82|
|3||For Oral Health||Essential Oil||By Stimulating The Salivation Process||Rabbit And Rats||25mg/Kg||83|
|4||Vasodilation||Mahanimbilol, Murrayazolinine.||By Acting On Negative Chronotropic Effect||Frog||85mg/Kg||36|
|5||Anti-Oxidation Activity||Mahanimbine, Koenigine||Increases The Gsh Content In The Liver And Reduction In Hepatic Malondialdehyde In Kidney||Male Wistar Rat’s||15mg/Kg||6|
|6||Anti-Cancer Activity||Mahanimbine, Girinimbine, Mahanine, Murrayafoline||Increase The Death Of Cancerous Cell Proteasome Inhibitor||Mice||150mg/Kg||29|
|7||Effect On Bronchial Disorders||Girinimbine, Mahanine||By Blocking 5-Lipooxygenase Activity||Frog||35mg/Kg||29|
|8||Effect On Dental Caries||Isomahanine, Murrayanol And Mahanine||Inhibition Of Cavity Formation||Rabbits||50mg/Kg||83|
|9||Anthelmintic Activity||Mahanine, Koenimbidine||Cause Paralysis||Test Worm||100 Mg/Ml||61|
|10||Wound Healing Effect||Mahanine, Mahanimbicine, Mahanimbine And Essential Oil||Act Against Inflammatory Cells And The Collagen Deposition Was Reduces||Male Albino Rat||65mg/Kg||84|
|11||Anti-Amnesic||Koenimbidine, Mahanimbicine,||Protect Against The Neurodegenerative Diseases||Aged Mice||100mg/Ml||85|
|12||Protects The Eyes And Improves Eyesight||Essential Oil, Vitamin A||Eye Sight Improvement||Gunia Pig||5mg/Ml||15|
|13||Radiation Protection Activity||Mahanine, Murrayafoline||Increases Glutathione, Its Enzymes Levels And Decrease The Chromosomal Damage||Mice||100 Mg/Kg||86|
|14||Anti-Ulcer Activity||Mahanimbine And Essential Oil||Effect Against Lesion Index, Area And Percentage Of Lesion And On Ulcer||Albino Rats||85mg/Ml||49|
|15||Anti-Microbial Activity||Mahanimbine, Murrayanol And Mahanine,||Inhibition Of Topoisomerase I And Ii||Bacteria, Fungi||3.13-100 Μg/Ml||16|
|16||Anti-Diarrheal Activity||Kurryam, Koenimbine Koenine||Prostaglandin E2-Induced Enter Pooling And Reduction In Gastrointestinal Motility||Albino Mouse, Wister Rats||20ml/Kg||17|
|17||Chemoprotective Activity||Koenimbin||Reduction In Induced Chromosomal Damage||Swiss Albino Mice||100 Mg/Kg||67|
|18||Immunomodulatory Activity||Mahanimbine, Mahanine,||Increase In Phagocytic Index By Removing Carbon Partical From Blood||Albino Mice||125mg/Kg||87|
|19||Haematological Activity||Koenimbidine, Mahanimbicine,||No Adverse Effect Against Food Efficiency Ratio||Rats||85mg/Kg||47|
|20||Antipyretic Activity||Murrayacine, Murrayazolinine.||Decrease In Fever||Albino Rat, Rabbit||200mg/Kg||88|
|21||Nephroprotective Activity||Koenimbidine,||Reno-Protective Activity Against Unilateral Renal Ischemia||Male Wistar Rats||150mg/Kg||15|
|22||Cardio-Protective Activity||Girinimbine, Girinimbiol||Cadmium-Induced Oxidation Is Reduces||Swiss Albino Mice And Rat Cardiac Tissue||100 Mg/Kbw||89|
|23||Anti-Cytotoxicity Activity||Girinimbine, Koenoline, Mahanine, Pyrafoline-D And Murrafoline-I||Exhibiting The Cell Death Resulted As The Mortality Of The Cell||Swiss Albino Mice||150mg/Kg||78|
|24||Inotropic Activity||Girinimbiol Murrafoline-I||Positive Inotropic Effect||Frog Heart||100mg/Kg||90|
|25||Hepatoprotective Activity||Girinimbine, Mahanine, Mahanimbine, Isomahanimbine, Murrayazolidine, Murrayazoline||Oxidative Stress Inducer||Wister Rats||90mg/Kg||35|
|26||Anti-Lipase Activity||Mahanimbin, Koenimbin, Koenigicine And Clausazoline-K||Reduced Total Cholesterol (Tc) And Triglyceride (Tg) Levels||Albino Rats And Wister Rats||120mg/Kg||91|
|27||Anti-Alzheimer’s Activity||Isomahanimbine, Murrayazolidine,||Improves The Values Of Protective Antioxidants||Young And Aged Mice||150mg/Kg||20|
|28||Anti-Analgesic Activity||Girinimbine, Mahanine, Mahanimbine, Isomahanimbine||Anti-Nociceptive Effects||Mice||25mg/Ml In Combination With Diclofenac||48|
|29||Effecte Digestive System||Mahanine, Murrayafoline||Stimulates Digestive Enzymes||Mice||50mg/Kg||55|
|30||Neuro-Protective Activity||Koenimbin, Koenigicine And Clausazoline-K||Decreasing Glycemic Levels||Mice, Rats||100mg/Kg||59|
|31||Anti-Inflammatory Activity||Girinimbine, Mahanine, Mahanimbine, Isomahanimbine,||Cox-Inhibitory Property||Albino And Wistar Rats||50mg/Kg||48|
Table 4 Pharmacological use of Murraya koenigii. Other uses
Essential oil Murraya koenigii is used as sun protection and erythema agent in formulation.20 Curry leaf oil in your regular skin care cream or lotion helps by applying it on affected area to cure skin problem such as pimples, athlete’s foot, ringworm, itches, acne, boils and septic of wounds and burns.66 Study evaluated essential oils of Murraya koenigii for toxicity and repellent activity against Callosobruchus maculatus due to have active constituent α-pinene and caryophyllene.67 Studies for structure function of Murraya koenigii show trypsin inhibitor by a compact structure of helical content at increasing temperature as a inhibitory function of the protein.68 The effects of column extract of Murraya koenigii show a protective effect in Dalton’s Ascitic Lymphoma.44 The possibility of incorporating dried curry leaf powder in common dishes increases the sources of micronutrients.69 The aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii show Larvicidal, pupicidal repellent and anti-vector activity against the larvae and pupae is seen.70 Richness of vitamin A and calcium in Curry leaf oil is used for strengthening the bone, osteoporosis, calcium deficiency, and radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatments of cancer.71 Orofacial dyskinesia (OD) is treated by Murrya koenigii for the prevention or treatment of neuroleptic-induced.72, 73 The activity of carbazole alkaloids isolated from Murrya koenigii extract and their derivatives against Trichomonas gallinae,74 Curry leaves and its essential oil is used in both internally and externally for healthy, long, strong, lustrous hair by balancing diet in equal proportion of vitamins, minerals, iron and other nutrients is required to maintain a healthy hair.75, 40 Curry leaf oil helps in contracting the muscles and tissues.76, 43 Curry leaf extract help in pigmentation and reduces the white patches all over the body.3 Fresh leaves, dried leaf powder and essential oil of curry leaf is widely used as flavouring soups, curries, fish, meat dishes, eggs dishes, traditional curry powder blends, seasoning and ready to use other food preparations.13, 77 The essential oil of Murraya koenigii is utilized in soap and cosmetic industry for aromatherapy.78, 79 The Murraya koenigii is beneficial in bruises, eruption and to treat bites of poisonous animals.80 –94
Murraya koenigii is a leafy medicinal as well as green leafy plant that belongs to family Rutaceae. The various pharmacological activities of the plant has been seen such as such as activity on Anti diabetic, cholesterol reducing property, antimicrobial activity, antiulcer activity, Antioxidative property, cytotoxic activity, anti-diarrhoea activity, anti-cancer activity with many other phagocytic activity.
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What is the texture of curry leaves?
Description: – This plant doesn’t have any flower or fruit. The shape of the leaves are lanceolate. The length of the leaf is 5cm and the width is 2cm. The margin is entire and the venation is netted pinnate. The arrangement is subopposite, the texture of the leaves are smooth and the bark texture is rough.
What is the Colour of the curry leaf?
All About Curry Leaves Curry leaves are the shiny, dark green, aromatic leaves of a tree from the citrus fruit family that release a deliciously nutty aroma when fried in hot oil. Curry leaves are often seen decorating the plates of South Indian households.
What does curry look like as a plant?
A type of herb that is grown both for its ornamental beauty, its aroma and its flavor when used in foods. As a young plant it looks very similar to lavender, growing dusty greenish-grey, needle shaped leaves. Once it matures however, the appearance of this herb changes as small round, yellow colored flowers bloom on the stalks of the plant which may reach 24 inches in height.
When consumed as a food, Curry Plant is most often considered a seasoning which the English use to flavor cream cheese sandwich spreads. Due to the strong aroma of this herb which does have a distinctive sage-like fragrance or that of a mixture of curry spices, Curry Plant is added to foods sparingly, providing a distinctive flavor for salads or meats.
It is also added to mayonaise with eggs to season salads or it is used to flavor meats, such as chicken when it is tucked under the skin of the poultry during cooking. The Curry Plant should not be confused with curry leaves that grow on the curry tree.
What is the shape of leaf margin?
Leaf Edges or Margins – Treehugger / Hilary Allison All tree leaves exhibit margins—the blade-like edges of the leaves—that are either serrated or smooth. Leaf margins can be finely classified based on at least a dozen unique characteristics. There are four major classifications into which all others fit:
Entire Leaf: The margin is even and smooth around the entire leaf edge. Examples are magnolia or dogwood tree leaves. Toothed or Serrated Leaf: The margin has a series of toothlike pointed teeth around the entire leaf edge. Examples are elm and mulberry tree leaves. Lobed Leaf: The margin has an indention or indentions that go less than halfway to the leaf midrib or midline. Maple and oak trees have lobed leaves. Parted Leaf: The margin has an indention or indentions that go more than halfway to the leaf midrib or midline.
What is a leaf margin type?
- ENTIRE : margin is smooth around entire leaf edge.
- CRENATE: margin has scalloped or rounded teeth.
- DENTATE: margin has square or rectangular teeth that point outwards.
- SERRATE: These teeth point outward towards the apex of the leaf, look rather like a saw.
- LOBED: lobes are similar to big teeth that extend more than about 1/4 of the way to the midvein.
What is the texture of a leaf?
Lamb’s ear & magnolia ‘Little Gem’ Texture is one of several leaf characteristics that is used for plant identification, but it is even more important in garden design. Leaves may be leathery, hairy, smooth and shiny, and this texture can add significant variety to the garden bed or flower arrangement.
Compare a magnolia leaf to a leaf of lamb’s ear. The former is smooth and shiny and the latter is hairy. Sure the color is different but even if you saw the two leaves in a black and white photo you could see the difference in texture. Botanists have developed a set a terms to describe the various texture of the leaf surface.
The goal here is to become aware of some of the possible types of textures that leaves may have. Knowing some of the variations in leaf texture might even spark an interest in searching for more. Here are some of the common terms with a few interesting ones thrown in.
Glabrous: smooth, not hairy Coriaceous: leather-like Rugose: deeply creased with distinct veins Farinose: mealy, with a covering of waxy, whitish powder Glaucous: having a whitish or bluish waxy covering Glutinous: sticky Scabrose: rough like sandpaper
2. With hairs:
Pubescent: having hairs Arachnoid: having fine, entangled hairs like a cobweb Downy: having very short, weak, and soft hairs Tomentose: having matted, wooly hairs Hirsute: having coarse, stiff hairs Hispid: rough with bristles, stiff hairs, or minute prickles Floccose: having flocks of soft, wooly hairs that tend to rub off Stellate: having star-shaped hairs
Notice how many different kinds of hairiness there are; and this is only part of the list. Some terms overlap each other and more than one term can be used to describe a particular leaf. Some of the differences in hairiness can easily be seen with the naked eye but others are more appreciated with a hand lens, microscope, or electron microscope.
Touching the leaves is a great way to appreciate the various textures and their differences. This characteristic of leaves is especially important to the visually challenged but everyone can benefit from learning to appreciate foliage with more than the sense of sight. I stroke my plants whenever I visit my garden; yes, and sometimes I get pieced by a thorn or stung by a bumble bee.
But it’s worth it.
What are the properties of curry leaves?
Curry Leaves for Eye Health: –
Why is it called curry leaf?
Every thing about CURRY LEAVES | Vahrehvah : – Curry leaves is one of the fantastic aromatic herb used in many of dishes in Indian cuisine. Curry leaves known as Murraya koenigii is a tropical to sub tropical tree in the Rutaceae family which is a native to India. Curry leaves are called by different name in India like kariveppilai (in Tamil), kariveppaku (in Telugu) and karipatta in Hindi,
- The name kariveppilai itself says the kari means curry, veppu means neem and ilai means leaf,
- Hence the literal translation of curry leaves of the Tamil name means ” leaf that is used to make curry “.
- These leaves are almost used or added in almost all dishes to give a nice aroma to the dish.
- The curry leaves tree is a small tree about 4 to 6 m tall with a trunk up to 40cm diameter.
The leaves are pinnate with 11 to 21 leaflets and each leaflet about 2 – 4 cm long and 1 – 2cm broad. These leaves are highly aromatic and have a nice fragrance. The curry leaves are highly valued as seasoning in southern and west coast Indian cooking and Sri Lankan cooking especially in curries and fried dishes.
They are also used in making of rice, thoran, vada, rasam and kadhi, The aromatic leaves add spice to the dishes. The leaves of Murraya koenigii are also used as a herb in Ayurvedic medicine. Their properties include much value as an anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-hypercholesterolemic etc.
Curry leaves or karipatta are also known to be good for hair for keeping it healthy and long. They also contain iron. These leaves are extensively used in Southeast Asian cooking, adding a very distinct flavor and aroma to an assortment of dishes. Traditionally, curry leaves are fried in oil in the cooking pan before any other ingredients are added.
- As they are fried, the leaves start to release volatile aromas and flavors which will infuse the dish cooked in the pan.
- The leaves are left in the pan throughout the cooking process, and they can be eaten or set aside during diners.
- The leaves of the curry tree are normally used fresh or even dried.
- The Curry Leaves possess soft surface, but these are generally removed prior to serving.
The curry leaves are also dried, powdered and stored. This can also be used in many dishes to enhance the taste and flavor. The history of curry leaves dates back to the ancient period. The curry leaves are exported to different parts of the world from India.
- It is basically used as a spice and is an aromatic deciduous tree which is 5 meters tall and fifteen to forty centimeters in diameter.
- This tree is mainly cultivated in homesteads, largely on a scale of plantation.
- Curry powder made after grinding curry leaves, is invented by the British in order to imitate the Indian cooking flavor with little effort.
From the name, one might imagine that curry leaves smell and taste like curry powder. In fact, curry leaves are not related to curry powder at all, although both come from the same root, kari, which in Tamil means a stew of vegetables cooked in a rich sauce.
- While curry leaves can certainly be used in curries and even with curry powder, they can also be used on their own in a variety of soups, stews, chutneys, breakfast dishes like upma, dhokla etc and so forth.
- In some parts of Southeast Asia, curry leaves are chewed, because they are believed to be beneficial to digestion, and especially good for preventing diarrhea,
You can also see curry leaves in some traditional herbal preparations, especially for the skin, as curry leaves are supposed to promote clear, healthy skin. Curry leaves are a good source of vitamin A and they provide a rich source of calcium. They are primarily used in providing a flavor in Indian cooking especially in the south Indian cooking while preparing the sambar or rasam.
These leaves have several herbal remedial qualities and are mainly derived from an aromatic and deciduous shrub. Curry leaves are highly aromatic. Curry leaves strengthens stomach functioning. In southern part of the country, curry leaves are mainly used in as it provide a fine flavor to the curries, vegetable, pickles, chutneys, soups as well as butter milk preparations.
Curry leaves have been used for centuries almost in all the parts of country. This herb has several medicinal properties. For instance, its leaves and bark can be used as a tonic, stomachic, stimulant and carminative, It can help in reducing blood sugar if these leaves are consumed early in the morning in empty stomach.
What is curry leaf called in English?
This article is about Murraya koenigii, a tree which produces an aromatic leaf often used in Indian cuisine. For the European plant sometimes referred to as curry plant, see Helichrysum italicum,
|Least Concern ( IUCN 3.1 )|
|Murraya koenigii ( L.) Sprengel|
The curry tree, Murraya koenigii or Bergera koenigii, is a tropical and sub-tropical tree in the family Rutaceae (the rue family, which includes rue, citrus, and satinwood ), native to Asia, The plant is also sometimes called sweet neem, though M.
What is the English name of curry leaf?
We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process. Curry leaves are the foliage of the curry tree ( Murraya koenigii ). This tree is native to India, and its leaves are used for both medicinal and culinary applications.
- They’re highly aromatic and have a unique flavor with notes of citrus ( 1 ).
- Curry leaves are not the same as curry powder, though they’re often added to this popular spice mixture and popularly used in cooking to add flavor to dishes, such as curries, rice dishes, and dals.
- Aside from being a versatile culinary herb, they offer an abundance of health benefits due to the powerful plant compounds they contain.
Here are 9 impressive benefits and uses of curry leaves.
How big is a curry leaf plant?
Usually available: December to April Life cycle: Perennial Height: 3 – 6m Position: Full sun Soil preference: Well drained This is how we pack and send your Herb Plants to all states except TAS & WA You will receive – 1 Curry Leaf Tree Herb Plant in a 50 X 75mm tube – General growing instructions All of our Herb Plants are grown organically with certified organic potting mixes and fertilizers Botanical Name: Murraya koenigii Curry Leaf Tree is a small evergreen tree which grows 3-6m in height.
It has aromatic compound leaves with about 12 dark green leaves pet stem. White flowers occur in clusters and are followed by pea sized berries which turn reddish brown when ripe. Curry leaf tree is a native of India and Sri Lanka where it has been used medicinally and in cooking for hundreds of years.
Leaves are used in curries, vegetable dishes, chutneys, pickles. The leaves are often fried first in oil before other spices are added. Curry Leaves are now also used in Malaysia and Indonesia mainly in fish curries. Use the leaves on the BBQ to add a warm, smoky, spicy flavour to fish, meat and potatoes.
Is curry leaf a shrub?
3. How fast does a curry leaf plant grow? – Have you ever wondered why the baby curry leaf plant costs more than other plants like peppers and tomatoes? Or if you have a Curry Leaf Plant and wonder, ‘Why is my curry leaf plant not growing?’. Curry Leaf plant is actually a shrub (small tree) that grows slowly.
Therefore, the Curry leaf plant is not a fast grower in the initial stage. It takes a couple of years for the young curry leaf plant to establish roots and adjust to the new environment before it starts to grow in height. Here is the picture of my curry leaf plants at various ages, including one 5-year old Curry Leaf Tree.
Please keep in mind that your area’s weather and growing conditions may produce different results than mine. How fast does a curry leaf plant grow? Visual comparison of curry leaf plant growth: From left to right- The first one is a 1-week old seedling. It is 4″ tall and 3″ wide in the spread. It’s been recently cut out from the mother plant. The second one is a 6-month-old seedling.
The plant height is 6,” and the width is 6″. The leaflets are small and spaced out far apart. The Third one is a 1-year-old plant. The plant height is 7,” and the width is 8″. The fourth one is an almost 2 years old plant. The height is 12,” and the width is 13″. It took this plant a year to grow a couple of inches! The leaves are nicely dense, greener, and more prominent than the previous plants.
The fifth one is an almost 5 years old plant. The height is 3 ft (because I kept pruning the curry leaf plant to maintain the size), and the width is 3.5 ft. I harvest roughly 10 to 15 leaflets (the entire string of small leaves) every 15 days from this curry leaf plant.
As you can see from the picture and the description above, the curry leaf plant takes time to establish and grow tall in the earlier stage of life. However, once the plant is 2 to 3 years old, it will be taller, denser, and ready to be harvested. Before buying a curry leaf plant, consider how long you can wait and babysit the plant before you want to start harvesting the leaves.
If you have the patience to wait for a couple of years before harvesting the leaves, buy a small curry leaf plant here, which is usually cheaper. If going to the grocery store every week to get the curry leaves is too much for you, and you can invest little extra upfront, buy the largest curry leaf plant you can afford.
Do curry leaves have flowers?
What is Curry Leaf Tree? – The Curry Leaf Tree (Murraya koenigii) is a small evergreen tree. It is part of the Rutaceae family and is native to India and Sri Lanka. The Curry Leaf Tree has a spreading and rounded habit which has foliage that is mid-green and fern like in appearance.
The leaves are highly aromatic and used in many Indian dishes. During Spring and Summer the tree produces clusters of small fragrant creamy white flowers. The Curry Leaf Tree can self pollinate so after the flowers small black berry like fruit forms. The berries also contain a single large seed which is toxic and should not be eaten.
The Curry Leaf Tree is a tropical to subtropical tree but does well in temperate areas and requires rich well drained soil in a warm sheltered position in the garden. When growing in colder climates keep it in a large container and move it to a warm position in Winter.
What is linear shape leaf?
Definitions of linear leaf. a long slender leaf. synonyms: elongate leaf. type of: simple leaf. a leaf that is not divided into parts.
What are the shapes of leaves called?
Introduce your students to plant identification and diversity with real specimens. Six common shapes for simple leaves (usually Linear, Lanceolate, Oblong, Rhomboid, Elliptic, a – Find this Pin and more on by, Find this Pin and more on by, : Basic Leaf Shapes Display – Leaf and Leaves Display | Leaf shapes, Tree leaf identification, Trees to plant
How do you describe the shape of a leaf?
Leaf shape varies between orchid species and genera, The description of leaf shape is generalised and subjective. Leaves on a plant can vary in shape and size and between individuals. Users should take a relatively broad interpretation of leaf shape. When leaf margins are crinkled/wavy the leaf shape is best determined when flattened.
|Linear / ensiform : long and narrow with margins more or less parallel, the tip usually pointed.||Lanceolate : longer than wide, widest toward the base, the apex tapered to a point.|
|Falcate : uniformly curved (sickle-shaped).||Ovate : like a longitudinal section through an egg – broader below the middle.|
|Deltate : with three sides and broadest below the middle (triangular).||Cordate : shaped like a heart, broadest toward the base with incurved basal margins.|
|Elliptic : oval and flat in a plane, broadest at the middle and tapered to each end.||Oblong : broad with margins straight and parallel.|
|Orbicular : circular or nearly so (round).||Obovate / spathulate : like a longitudinal section through an upside down egg – broader above the middle. Resembling a spoon or spatula.|
|Reniform : shaped like a kidney, generally wider than long with incurved basal margins.||Terete : like a slender, tapering cylinder, and more or less circular in any cross section.|
What are the three basic leaf shapes?
1. Broad and flat leaf, 2. Long and narrow leaf, 3. Needlelike or saclelike.
What are the shapes of plants?
Common shapes include the conical form of conifers, the vase shape of many shrubs, the linearity of scrambling vines, and the clumped form of a daylily. Ferns have a range of forms nearly as great as flowering plants, while mosses usually take the form of miniature herbs.
What is the shape of mango leaf?
Mango leaves health benefits – They are either narrow, oval-shaped like a lance head, tapering to a point at each end, or elliptical shape, which refers to the way of ellipses. Mango Leaves Benefits
How many leaves are on a curry leaf?
Download Article Download Article Curry leaves hail from South India, and though their name makes it sound like they’d smell and taste similar to curry powder, that’s far from the truth. They have a strong lemongrass flavor, making them a nice addition to rich dishes once they’ve been sautéd over high heat to release their aromatic flavor.
- 2 tablespoons (30 mL) of cooking oil or ghee
- 1 teaspoon (2 grams) of mustard seeds
- 6 to 8 fresh curry leaves
- 2 to 3 tablespoons (30 to 44 mL) of coconut milk
Makes enough sauce for 1 meal or 4 dishes
- 1 cup (25 grams) of fresh curry leaves
- 2 tablespoons (10 grams) of sesame seeds
- 2 tablespoons (16 grams) of roasted peanuts
- 1 teaspoon (2.5 grams) of dried mango powder
- 1/2 teaspoon (1.5 grams) of red chili powder
- Pinch of sugar
- Pinch of salt
Makes 1 cup (325 grams) of chutney
- 1 Buy leaves that are a bright, dark green color. Find fresh curry leaves in the produce section of Asian or Indian markets. You can often find them online, too, just be aware that long shipping times could affect the flavor and vibrancy of the leaves. Avoid leaves that are browning or discolored, as they will probably have a bitter flavor that won’t taste good. Tip: If you can’t find fresh curry leaves, substitute dried curry leaves in their place. Just use about 1.5 times as many dried curry leaves as you would fresh.
- 2 Remove the curry leaves from the stems and rinse them in cool water. To remove the leaves from the stem, simply pluck them off with your thumb and forefinger. Run the leaves under a gentle stream of water and pat them dry with a paper towel. Most dishes call for about 8 to 10 curry leaves, though always follow the recipe to ensure your dish will be flavored properly.
- Wrap unused leaves in a damp paper towel and keep them in the fridge. They won’t last for more than a week, so try to use them before they go bad.
- 3 Heat 1 to 2 US tbsp (15 to 30 mL) of cooking oil over medium-high heat. Use whichever cooking oil or alternative you prefer: avocado oil, olive oil, coconut oil, grapeseed oil, ghee, and other options will all work to cook the curry leaves. Heat up your choice of oil for 30 to 60 seconds until it’s hot.
- To test if the oil is hot, get some water on your fingertips and flick a few drops into the pan. If the water sizzles, the oil is hot. If the water doesn’t sizzle, it needs more time.
- 4 Sauté the curry leaves for 3 to 5 minutes until they’re crisp. Once the oil is hot, add the 8 to 10 curry leaves to the pan. Cook them for 3 to 5 minutes, or until they’ve softened and start to crisp at the edges. Stir them with a wooden spoon from time to time to keep them from burning.
- If the leaves do start to burn, lower the heat to medium.
- 5 Cook the rest of your dish with the curry leaves to infuse it with flavor. There are 2 options as to how to use your curry leaves. Pour them and the oil over top of a finished dish, or add them to the base of a dish and keep cooking from that point with the leaves incorporated.
- If you need to transfer your leaves to a bigger dish, use a hot pad or dishtowel to handle the hot pan so you don’t burn yourself.
- 6 Set the sautéd leaves to the side to use as a finishing seasoning. If you’d rather use the curry leaves as an accompaniment to your dish rather than tasting the flavor throughout the entire thing, simply remove the pan from the heat and set it to the side once the leaves are sautéd. Make the rest of your dish as you normally would; once it’s done, add the leaves and oil to the dish and enjoy.
- Soups, rice dishes, curries, slices of bread, yogurts, and other dishes are all great options to top with sautéd curry leaves.
- 1 Mix curry leaves, mustard seeds, and coconut for a traditional flavor. Over medium-high heat, soften 2 tablespoons (30 mL) of cooking oil or ghee, Add 1 teaspoon (2 grams) of mustard seeds and heat them until they start to sizzle. Then, add 6 to 8 curry leaves to the dish.
- You can modify the measurements and cooking style depending on what you’re making and how much you need. Just keep in mind that coconut, mustard seeds, and curry leaves mix well together and can be used to amp up the flavor of any dish.
- 2 Cook a rice dish with sautéd curry leaves to infuse it with flavor. Sauté 8 to 10 curry leaves in hot oil until they get crisp. Once they’re crisp, add your uncooked rice and other ingredients to the pan and cook the meal as you normally would. Stir everything together occasionally to mix the flavor of the curry leaves throughout the rice dish.
- For a flavorful modification, cook your rice with coconut milk instead of water.
- 3 Pair your vegetable sides with curry leaves to add a lemon essence. Fry 8 to 10 curry leaves in hot oil, then add your vegetables of choice to the pan and cook them until they’re done. Potatoes, carrots, mushrooms, eggplant, onions, cauliflower, sweet potatoes, spinach, and tomatoes are great vegetable options to pair with curry leaves.
- If you decide to use several different kinds of vegetables, plan out the timing so that you don’t accidentally undercook or overcook anything. For example, spinach needs a lot less time to cook than potatoes do.
- 4 Complement curries with curry leaves to infuse them with freshness. You may think that curries already have curry leaves in them, but curry leaves have a distinct flavor separate from that in curry powder. Sauté 8 to 10 curry leaves in a pan of hot oil until they get crisp, then set them to the side while you finish the rest of your dish. Once the curry itself is done, spoon the curry leaves and oil over the top of the dish to add an extra flavor element. Did You Know? Curry powder is a combination of flavors like turmeric, chili powder, coriander, cumin, ginger, and pepper.
- 5 Bake an aromatic loaf of bread by adding chopped curry leaves. For a single loaf of bread, use about 2 tablespoons (2.5 grams) of fresh, chopped curry leaves. Chop them into small pieces, about 1 ⁄ 8 inch (0.32 cm) wide. Add a few other aromatic spices, like turmeric and cumin, to complement the flavor of the curry leaves.
- Slice your bread and spread butter over top, or eat it alongside another dish like Indian rice or curry.
- 6 Make a chutney to add to many dishes for an instant infusion of flavor. Measure out 1 cup (25 grams) of fresh curry leaves, 2 tablespoons (10 grams) of sesame seeds, 2 tablespoons (16 grams) of roasted peanuts, 1 teaspoon (2.5 grams) of dried mango powder, 1/2 teaspoon (1.5 grams) of red chili powder, and a pinch each of sugar and salt.
- Store this chutney in the fridge in an airtight container. It’ll be good for about a week if you haven’t eaten it all before then!
Add New Question
- Question Can I make a tea out of curry leaves? Ishika Saagar Community Answer Yes, it’s possible to make tea out of curry leaves. You could also make buttermilk with ground dried curry leaves. It might not taste great, so a little sugar could help.
- Question I have a curry plant in my herb garden but have never used it, I don’t know how, any suggestions? You can make delicious herbal tea using the leaves! It makes for a perfect alternative to regular tea, coffee or hot chocolate.
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- Wrap fresh, unused curry leaves in a damp paper towel and store them in the fridge for up to one week. As a small thank you, we’d like to offer you a $30 gift card (valid at GoNift.com). Use it to try out great new products and services nationwide without paying full price—wine, food delivery, clothing and more. Enjoy!
- If you like the flavor of fresh curry leaves but don’t like the texture, simply push them to the side while you’re eating. You’ll still be able to taste the flavor but won’t have to actually eat the leaves. As a small thank you, we’d like to offer you a $30 gift card (valid at GoNift.com). Use it to try out great new products and services nationwide without paying full price—wine, food delivery, clothing and more. Enjoy!
- When looking for curry leaves in the store, don’t rely on your nose! Curry leaves don’t smell like traditional curry—instead, they smell more like lemongrass. As a small thank you, we’d like to offer you a $30 gift card (valid at GoNift.com). Use it to try out great new products and services nationwide without paying full price—wine, food delivery, clothing and more. Enjoy!
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Avoid using raw curry leaves in your dishes. Cooking them thoroughly will remove any potentially harmful bacterias that could make you sick. As a small thank you, we’d like to offer you a $30 gift card (valid at GoNift.com). Use it to try out great new products and services nationwide without paying full price—wine, food delivery, clothing and more. Enjoy!
- Paper towel
- Sauté pan
- Wooden spoon
Article Summary X Curry leaves can infuse your dishes with a with a rich, lemony flavor. To release the flavor of the leaves, you’ll need to cook them in oil. Remove the leaves from their stems and rinse them in cool water, then set them aside. Heat 1 to 2 tablespoons of your favorite cooking oil for 30 to 60 seconds in a skillet over medium-high heat, then add the leaves.
What is leaf margin analysis?
Leaf Margin Analysis Leaf margin analysis (LMA) is a method that uses one leaf characteristic, the margin (edge), to estimate mean annual temperature (MAT, meaning average yearly temperature). LMA is based upon the observation that woody dicots (generally speaking, broadleaved trees and shrubs) that have leaves with entire margins usually make up a greater proportion of the flora in warmer climates than in cooler climates. Unlobed untoothed (left) and toothed (right) leaves. Left: A leaf of northern spicebush ( Lindera benozoin ) without teeth. Right: A leaf of red alder ( Alnus rubra ) with teeth. Credits: and (both images by New York Botanical Garden, via GBIF,, images rotated and cropped). Lobed untoothed (left) and toothed (right) leaves. Left: A three-lobed leaf of sassafras ( Sassafras albidum ) without teeth (the tip of the left leaf lobe is broken off). Right: A three-lobed leaf of hops ( Humulus lupulus ) with teeth. Credits: (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Herbarium, via GBIF, ); (New York Botanical Garden, via GBIF, ).
To begin calculating mean annual temperature (MAT) using LMA, the total number of woody dicot species (or morphotypes) in a flora must be determined, as well as the number of woody dicot species with untoothed leaves. The number of species with untoothed leaves added to the number of species with toothed leaves should equal the total number of species in a flora.
If a particular plant species has both toothed and untoothed leaves, it is counted as half a species (0.5) in each category. Example table for tabulating the numbers of species (or morphotypes) with untoothed and toothed leaves in a flora
|Species or morphotype||Untoothed||Toothed||Total species or morphotypes|
In the table above, the flora has a total of five species or leaf morphotypes. Two species (A and E) have untoothed leaves, two species (B and C) have toothed leaves, and one species (D) has both untoothed and toothed leaves. Thus, each category (untoothed and toothed) has a total of 2.5 species or morphotypes.
- E = number of species or morphotypes with untoothed leaves ÷ total number of species or morphotypes × 100
- In the example above:
- E = 2.5 ÷ 5 × 100 = 50%
LMA is rooted in observations published by Irving W. Bailey and Edmund W. Sinnott in the early 1900s. These researchers showed that the warmer the climate, the more woody dicot species with entire-margined leaves were present in the flora; as a corollary, colder climates have more woody dicot species with toothed leaves.
- There are some exceptions to this rule.
- For example, the association between colder climate and toothed leaves breaks down in very cold and dry environments, which also have a higher percentage of entire-margined species.
- Bailey and Sinnott later applied their data from modern plants to fossil floras.
They calculated the percent entire-margined species for some Cretaceous and Cenozoic floras. They compared the values from the fossil floras to those of modern floras to provide a rough interpretation of the environments represented by the fossil floras. Percent entire-margined woody dicot species in modern floras from Bailey & Sinnott (1915). The table above shows the percent entire-margined woody dicot species in global floras, separated into broad categories. Note that as climate gets warmer, the percent entire-margined species increases, moving from cold temperate (24%–44% entire-margined species), to warm temperate (39%–56% entire-margined species), to subtropical/tropical (71%–86% entire-margined species). Percent entire-margined wood dicot species from fossil floras from Bailey & Sinnott (1916). This table shows the percent entire-margined woody dicot species from fossil floras in the Cretaceous and Tertiary (mostly Paleogene; note that Florissant is now considered to be late Eocene in age). Cretaceous floras range from 62%–71%, Tertiary floras from 28%–83%. Credit: Reproduced from (). Leaves from the Eocene Florissant flora of Colorado. The Florissant flora is dominated by species (or morphotypes) with toothed leaves. From left to right, these leaves are from an extinct member of the elm family (, toothed), an extinct member of the beech family (, toothed), and a smoketree (, untoothed).
All photos by National Park Service/NPS (public domain). graphed the correlation between higher mean annual temperature (MAT) and more entire-margined species using data from East Asian floras. Using Wolfe’s data, later developed an equation to calculate MAT from the percent of woody dicot species with entire-margined leaves in a flora.
Their equation is: MAT = (0.306 × percent entire-margined species) + 1.141 This equation is based on the slope-intercept equation for a line. So, where does the line that defines this equation come from? It comes from making a graph of data from modern floras.
For the equation above, data from East Asian floras were plotted. As in the graph below, the percent of entire-margined species for each flora was plotted on the x-axis, and the corresponding mean annual temperature for each flora was plotted on the y-axis. Then, the best-fitting was drawn through the data points.
(Regression lines can be calculated by hand or, more conveniently, by a computer.) Correlation between leaf margin and MAT for East Asian forests. This graph, compiled by J.A. Wolfe, is based on “local floras in the humid to mesic forests of eastern Asia.” The plus-signs are data points. The dotted line is a regression line that has been fitted to the data. Credit: Reproduced from : pg.35, fig.8a.
- The general slope-intercept equation describing a line is:
- y = mx + b
- y = the y coordinate.
In the LMA equation above, y is the mean annual temperature (MAT). MAT is the value being calculated. x = the x coordinate. In the LMA equation above, x is the percent entire-margined woody dicot species in a given flora. m = the slope of the line. Slope = (change in y) ÷ (change in x).
In the LMA equation above, this value is 0.306. A slope of 0.306 means that for every 0.306°C change in mean annual temperature (MAT or y), there is a 1% change in the percent of entire-margined woody dicot species in a flora (x). Also, temperature and percent entire-margined species are positively correlated, so as one increases, so does the other.
b = the y-intercept. In other words, when x = 0, what is y? In the LMA equation above, this value is 1.141. Remember, x in this equation is percent entire-margined woody dicot species, so the y-intercept is the predicted MAT (1.141°C) when there are no entire-margined woody dicot species in a flora.
In the graph above, the y-intercept is on the right-hand side.) used their equation to estimate the MAT for several North American fossil leaf floras. In order to do this, all they needed to figure out was the percent of woody dicot species with entire-margined leaves in each flora. For example, in the Eocene Wind River flora from Wyoming, they calculated that 57% of woody dicot species had leaves with entire margins.
Using their equation: MAT = 0.306 × 57 + 1.141 = 18.6°C In the Eocene Green River (Parachute Creek Member or Lake Uinta) flora of Colorado and Utah, they calculated that 46% of woody dicot species had leaves with entire margins. Again, using their equation: MAT = 0.306 × 46 + 1.141 = 15.2°C Eocene Green River Formation (Parachute Creek Member) plant fossils at display at the Utah State Field House of Natural History in Vernal, Utah. Left: Wall of plant fossils. Right: Specimen of Macginitea, an extinct relative of the modern sycamore ( Platanus ).
- Since the first LMA equation was published, many other LMA formulas have been proposed. These equations are based on regional floras from different parts of the world and take the following general form:
- MAT = mE + b
- MAT = leaf mean annual temperature, the value that is being calculated.
m = the slope of the line. The slope varies from formula to formula. E = percent entire-margined (meaning untoothed) woody dicot leaf species or morphotypes. b = the y-intercept. This value varies depending on the equation.
- Sometimes, the y-intercept is negative, in which case the equation is:
- MAT = mE − b
- developed a global LMA equation by combining data from different major regions of the world. That equation is:
MAT = 0.194E + 5.884
How does margin help the leaf?
How does the leaf margin make the lotus surface dry as the lotus leaf floats on water? A smart role of the leaf margin makes the lotus surface dry when a lotus leaf floats on the water’s surface. It is mainly attributed to anisotropic topography composed of flat folds at the margin, which are quite different from the upper surface of the lotus leaf including the micro-papillae.
The flat folds around the leaf margin forms a ring-band, which introduces a strong energy barrier against water that tends to return to the surface of leaf. As a result, the water underneath the lotus surface hardly overflows onto the upper surface by getting across the energy barrier of the margin. Thanks to the ultra narrowness of the margin, water on the upper surface can still be shed from the surface through the margin.
This finding helps the understanding of the structure effect of the margin on many natural nonwetting surfaces of aqueous biology. It can inspire us to design a smart margin that can be applied to micro-devices on water, You have access to this article Please wait while we load your content. Something went wrong. First published 03 Sep 2008 Soft Matter, 2008, 4, 2232-2237 J. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Zhao, L. Xu, X. Gao, Y. Zheng and L. Jiang, Soft Matter, 2008, 4, 2232 DOI: 10.1039/B807857B To request permission to reproduce material from this article, please go to the,
If you are an author contributing to an RSC publication, you do not need to request permission provided correct acknowledgement is given. If you are the author of this article, you do not need to request permission to reproduce figures and diagrams provided correct acknowledgement is given. If you want to reproduce the whole article in a third-party publication (excluding your thesis/dissertation for which permission is not required) please go to the,
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